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ALPHABETICAL INDEX
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
LINKS TO THE VIRTUAL HUMAN BODY
abdomen
Lower part of the trunk, beneath the diaphragm, containing the main organs of the digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.

abdominal aorta
Fourth and last section of the aorta, located in the abdomen; it ends with the common iliac arteries.

abducent nerve
Cranial nerve, mainly motor, involved in lateral eye movements.

abductor muscle of great toe
Muscle connecting the calcaneus to the proximal phalanx of the big toe; it allows the big toe to flex and move away from the axis of the foot (abduction).

abductor muscle of little finger
Muscle connecting the pisiform bone to the proximal phalanx of the little finger; it mainly allows the little finger to move away from the axis of the hand (abduction).

abductor muscle of little toe
Muscle connecting the calcaneus to the proximal phalanx of the little toe; it allows the little toe to move away from the axis of the foot (abduction).

accessory cephalic vein
Vein running along the forearm and emptying into the cephalic vein near the elbow.

accessory nerve
Cranial nerve, essentially motor, controlling the movements of the neck and shoulders.

accessory saphenous vein
Vein draining blood from the posterior part of the thigh and emptying it into the great saphenous vein.

acetabulum
Concave articular surface of the iliac bone within which the head of the femur pivots.

acromial branch of thoracoacromial artery
Branch of the thoracoacromial artery, irrigating the deltoid muscle and acromion.

acromion
Bony protrusion of the scapula articulating with the clavicle.

adductor muscle of thumb
Deep muscle formed of two heads (oblique and transverse) connecting the capitate bone and second and third metacarpals to the proximal phalanx of the thumb; it allows the thumb to move toward the axis of the hand (adduction).

ampulla of uterine tube
Enlarged portion of the uterine tube, between the infundibulum and isthmus.

anconeus muscle
Muscle connecting the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the posterior border of the ulna; it reinforces the action of the triceps, allowing extension of the forearm.

angular artery
Branch of the facial artery, irrigating mainly the nose and lower eyelid.

angular vein
Vein running along the region from the internal part of the eye to the root of the nose; it extends via the facial vein.

ankle
Joint connecting the foot with the leg.

annular ligaments of trachea
Circular ligaments connecting the tracheal cartilages.

anterior cardiac veins
Small veins of the right ventricle, emptying directly into the right atrium.

anterior cerebral artery
Branch of the internal carotid artery, irrigating the frontal lobe of the brain.

anterior cervical lymph nodes
Nodes of the neck region, consisting of the superficial and deep anterior cervical lymph nodes.

anterior circumflex humeral artery
Branch of the axillary artery, irrigating the shoulder joint, as well as the biceps and deltoid muscles.

anterior circumflex humeral vein
Vein of the anterior part of the shoulder, emptying into the axillary vein.

anterior commissure
Transverse bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres, in front of the third ventricle.

anterior communicating artery
Very short artery connecting the two anterior cerebral arteries.

anterior cruciate ligament
Ligament located inside the articular capsule of the knee and connecting the femur to the tibia; it restrains forward movement of the tibia.

anterior cutaneous branch of iliohypogastric nerve
Branch of the iliohypogastric nerve, innervating the skin of the pubis.

anterior inferior cerebellar artery
Branch of the basilar artery, irrigating the anterior inferior part of the cerebellum.

anterior inferior iliac spine
Bony protrusion of the anterior part of the ilium, located beneath the anterior superior iliac spine.

anterior intercostal arteries
Branches of the internal thoracic artery, irrigating the intercostal spaces.

anterior intercostal veins
Veins running through the intercostal spaces and emptying into the internal thoracic veins.

anterior interosseous artery
Branch of the common interosseous artery, irrigating the anterior part of the forearm.

anterior interosseous veins
Veins of the anterior part of the forearm, emptying into the ulnar veins near the elbow.

anterior jugular vein
Vein carrying blood from the bottom of the face and part of the neck to the external jugular vein.

anterior lateral malleolar artery
Branch of the anterior tibial artery, irrigating the lateral part of the ankle, in front.

anterior ligament of head of fibula
Ligament connecting the tibia and anterior part of the head of the ulna.

anterior longitudinal ligament
Long ligament covering the anterior face of the vertebral column, from the base of the skull to the sacrum.

anterior medial malleolar artery
Branch of the anterior tibial artery, irrigating the medial part of the ankle, in front.

anterior perforated substance
Region at the base of the brain where numerous twigs of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries penetrate into the cerebral hemispheres.

anterior root of spinal nerve
Area where the motor nerve fibers of a spinal nerve attach to the spinal cord.

anterior scalene muscle
Muscle connecting the transverse processes of certain cervical vertebrae (third to sixth) to the first rib; it especially allows the first rib to be lifted.

anterior semilunar cusp of the pulmonary valve
One of three components of the pulmonary valve, assisting in closing the orifice during ventricular systole.

anterior superior iliac spine
Bony protrusion of the anterior part of the ilium.

anterior tibial artery
Terminal branch of the popliteal artery, running along the anterior compartment of the leg and irrigating the extensor muscles.

anterior tibial muscle
Thick muscle connecting the tibia to the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones; it allows the foot to flex back and move toward the axis of the body.

anterior tibial recurrent artery
Branch of the anterior tibial artery, irrigating the lateral and anterior parts of the knee; it follows an upward course.

anterior tibial veins
Veins of the anterior side of the leg, joining with the posterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein.

antihelix
Protrusion of the pinna, parallel to the helix, whose upper part divides into two branches.

antitragus
Small triangular eminence at the lower extremity of the antihelix.

aortic valve
Elastic structure preventing reverse flow of the blood of the aorta to the left ventricle.

apex of lung
Upper extremity of the lung.

apex of urinary bladder
Upper part of the bladder.

arch of aorta
Second segment of the aorta, giving rise to three large ascending arteries irrigating the head and upper limbs.

areola
Colored area surrounding the nipple.

arm
Part of the upper limb between the shoulder and elbow, corresponding to the humerus.

articular branches of descending genicular artery
Branches of the descending artery of the knee, irrigating the knee joint.

arytenoid cartilage
Each of two structures articulated with the cricoid cartilage, on which the lower vocal cords insert.

ascending aorta
First segment of the aorta, starting from the left ventricle and giving rise to two coronary arteries, irrigating the heart.

ascending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery
Branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, irrigating the muscles of the upper thigh.

ascending cervical artery
Terminal branch of the thyrocervical trunk, irrigating the muscles of the neck and the medullary canal.

ascending colon
Initial segment of the colon, in the right part of the abdomen.

ascending lumbar vein
Vein parallel to the vertebral column, joining with the subcostal vein to form the azygos vein on the right side and the hemiazygos vein on the left side.

atlas
First cervical vertebra (C1), articulating with the skull at the foramen magnum.

atrioventricular septum
Wall separating the right atrium and left atrium of the heart, over a small surface.

axilla
Hollow located beneath the shoulder, between the arm and thorax, covered with hair at puberty.

axillary artery
Extension of the subclavian artery, crossing the hollow of the underarm and allowing irrigation of the shoulder and thoracic wall; it continues through the brachial artery.

axillary lymph nodes
Nodes of the armpit region, filtering lymph from the upper limbs and upper external part of the thorax.

axillary nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating especially the deltoid and teres minor muscles, as well as the skin of the shoulder.

axillary vein
Vein crossing the hollow of the armpit and ending at the subclavian vein; it especially receives the veins of the shoulder and thorax.

axis
Second cervical vertebra (C2), having a vertical process allowing the atlas to pivot and the skull to rotate.

azygos vein
Vein carrying blood from the mediastinal, diaphragmatic, intercostal and lombar regions to the upper vena cava.

back
Hind part of the thorax.

back of hand
Outer side of the hand, corresponding to the metacarpus.

basilar artery
Single artery resulting from the union of two vertebral arteries, especially rrigating the cerebellum; they then divide to form the two posterior cerebral arteries.

basilic vein
Vein of the inner face of the arm, joining the brachial veins to form the axillary vein.

beard
All the hairs covering the lower part of the face of men beginning in puberty; their abundance and appearance vary by individual.

biceps of arm
Muscle having two heads (short and long) connecting the scapula to the radial tuberosity and allowing flexion of the forearm.

biceps of thigh
Muscle formed of two heads, located behind the thigh and connecting the femur and ischium to the fibula; it assists in bending the leg.

blood vessel
Channel through which blood circulates, mainly the arteries, veins and capillaries.

body of fibula
Central part (or diaphysis) of the fibula.

body of humerus
Central part (or diaphysis) of the humerus, between the two epiphyses.

body of mandible
Anterior horizontal part of the mandible.

body of radius
Central part (or diaphysis) of the radius, between the two epiphyses.

body of sternum
Wide part of the sternum, between the manubrium and the xiphoid process.

body of stomach
Main part of the stomach contained between the fundus and pylorus.

body of ulna
Central part (or diaphysis) of the ulna, between the two epiphyses.

bones of foot
All 26 bones forming the skeleton of the foot.

bones of hand
Group of 27 bones making up the skeleton of the hand.

brachial artery
Artery running along the inner side of the arm, extending the axillary artery.

brachial muscle
Powerful muscle connecting the anterior side of the humerus to the ulna; it allows flexion of the forearm.

brachial plexus
Network of nerves formed by the last four cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerve; its branches ensure the motor skills and responsiveness of the upper limbs.

brachial veins
Veins of the arm, joining the basilic vein to form the axillary vein.

brachiocephalic trunk
Artery arising from the arch of the aorta, dividing into the right subclavian and common carotid arteries.

brachiocephalic vein
Each of two veins channeling the blood of the head and upper limbs toward the superior vena cava.

brachioradial muscle
Flat muscle connecting the humerus to the lateral face of the radius; it allows flexion of the forearm and assists in its outward rotation (supination).

brain
Part of the central nervous system enclosed in the skull, consisting of the brain, cerebellum and brain stem; it is responsible for sensory perception, most movements, memory, language, reflexes and vital functions.

brainstem
Part of the brain located in the extension of the spinal cord, regulating numerous vital functions and ensuring transmissions between the spinal cord, brain and cerebellum.

breast
In women, paired glandular organ, rich in adipose tissue and covering the pectoral muscles, secreting milk to feed the newborn after birth. In men, the breast does not develop and plays no particular role.

bronchomediastinal lymphatic trunk
Lymphatic vessel draining the lymph of the thorax region.

buccal branches of facial nerve
Branches of the facial nerve, innervating the buccinator and orbicular muscles of the mouth.

buccal nerve
Branch of the mandibular nerve, innervating the skin of the cheek and mucous membrane of the mouth.

buccinator muscle
Main muscle of the cheek, connecting the angle of the mouth to the maxilla and mandible; it enlarges the corner of the lips and, with other muscles, especially allows blowing and whistling.

bulbourethral gland
Each of two male glands located beneath the prostate and secreting part of the sperm into the ureter.

bursa of calcaneal tendon
Serous sac located between the Achilles tendon and rear part of the calcaneus.

buttocks
Fleshy parts located beneath the lombar region, made up mainly of muscles (gluteus maximus muscles) and fat.

calcaneal tendon
Large tendon of the posterior face of the ankle, connecting the triceps surae to the calcaneus.

calcaneus
Bone of the tarsus forming the heel of the foot and serving to attach the Achilles tendon and several calf muscles.

calf
Hind part of the leg, made up of triceps surae.

canine
Each of four teeth located between the incisors and premolars, having a pointed crown and serving to tear food.

capitate bone
Bone of the lower row of the carpus, articulating with the upper row and the third metacarpal; it is the largest of the carpal bones.

cardiac notch of left lung
Depression in the lower part of the left lung, corresponding to the space occupied by the heart.

carotid canal
Hollow aperture in the temporal bone, allowing the passage of the internal carotid artery.

carpus
Group of eight short bones (carpal bones) making up the skeleton of the wrist.

cauda equina
All of the nerve fibers extending the spinal cord downward.

caudate lobe of liver
Part of the liver located behind the hilum, to the left of the fossa of the inferior vena cava.

caval opening
Opening of the diaphragm, enabling the passage of the inferior vena cava and branches of the right phrenic nerve.

cecum
Initial part of the large intestine, connecting with the ileum.

celiac trunk
Anterior branch of the abdominal aorta, dividing into three arteries (left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries) to serve the organs of the abdomen.

central canal of spinal cord
Canal located at the center of the spinal cord, communicating with the fourth cerebral ventricle and transporting cerebrospinal fluid.

central sulcus
Fissure separating the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe of the brain.

central tendon of diaphragm
Central part of the diaphragm, formed of a tendinous membrane into which the peripheral muscle fibers insert.

cephalic vein
Vein of the outer face of the arm, emptying into the axillary vein; it receives the superficial veins of the shoulder.

cerebellum
Part of the brain, ensuring motor coordination and maintaining balance and posture.

cerebral aqueduct
Canal joining the posterior extremity of the fourth ventricle and the posterior side of the third ventricle of the brain.

cerebral hemisphere
Each of the two symmetrical halves of the brain, whose surface is divided into four lobes (frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital).

cerebral peduncle
Each of two nerve bundles connecting the pons to the brain.

cervical canal
Channel formed by the walls of the cervix of the uterus, connecting the uterine cavity to the vagina.

cervical nerves
All eight pairs of spinal nerves, innervating the neck, shoulders, upper limbs and diaphragm.

cervical vertebrae
Highly mobile vertebrae (7) forming the upper part of the vertebral column at the neck.

cervicothoracic ganglion
Ganglia formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical node and first thoracic node, whose twigs lead to the head, neck, heart and upper limb.

cervix uterus
Lower extremity of the uterus, opening into the vagina.

cheek
Side of the face containing muscles capable of giving it many different expressions.

chin
Protruding part of the lower face, corresponding to the mandible.

choanae
Posterior openings of the nasal cavities.

choroid plexus of third ventricle
Mostly vascular formation located in the third ventricle, producing cerebrospinal fluid.

circumflex artery
Terminal branch of the left coronary artery, irrigating the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

circumflex scapular artery
Branch of the subscapular artery, irrigating the muscles of the scapula.

circumflex scapular vein
Vein returning blood from the muscles of the scapula to the subscapular vein.

cisterna chyli
Dilated sac formed by the confluence of several lymphatic trunks of the abdomen; it gives rise to the thoracic duct.

clavicle
Unpaired bone, long and slender, connecting the scapula to the sternum.

coccyx
Small triangular bone resulting from the fusion, in early adulthood, of the coccygeal vertebrae and forming the lower extremity of the vertebral column.

colic impression of spleen
Inferior part of the spleen in contact with the colon.

common carotid artery
Branch of the brachiocephalic trunk (right common carotid) or of the arch of the aorta (left common carotid) irrigating the head and upper part of the neck; it is divided into the external and internal carotid arteries.

common extensor muscle of fingers
Muscle connecting the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the medial and distal phalanges of the last four fingers; it allows extension of the fingers (except the thumb) and assists in extension of the hand.

common fibular nerve
Branch of the sciatic nerve, innervating the knee and muscles of the anterior and lateral parts of the leg.

common hepatic artery
Branch of the celiac trunk serving mainly to irrigate the liver, as well as the stomach and pancreas; it extends via the proper hepatic artery.

common iliac artery
Artery arising from the abdominal aorta and irrigating the lower limb.

common iliac lymph nodes
Nodes grouped near the common illiac vein and artery, filtering lymph from the external and internal iliac nodes.

common iliac vein
Vein draining blood from the lower limb to the inferior vena cava.

common interosseous artery
Branch of the ulnar artery, irrigating most of the muscles of the forearm.

common palmar digital arteries
Branches of the palmar superficial arch, giving rise to the proper palmar digital arteries.

common palmar digital nerves
Branches of the median nerve, innervating the muscles of the palm of the hand; they then send out branches innervating the fingers.

common tendinous sheath of fibular muscles
Membrane covering the tendons of the short and long fibular muscles at the lateral malleolus of the ankle.

communicating branches
Nerve fibers connecting the spinal nerves with the sympathetic nodes.

condylar canal
Aperture in the occipital bone, allowing the passage of blood vessels; it is absent in certain individuals.

confluence of venous sinuses
Convergence point of the upper sagittal, right, occipital and transverse sinuses.

coracobrachial muscle
Muscle connecting the coracoid process of the scapula to the medial border of the humerus; it mainly allows flexion of the arm.

coracoid process
Bony protrusion of the scapula, serving to attach several ligaments reinforcing the shoulder joint.

corniculate cartilage
Elastic cartilage located at the summit of each of the arytenoid cartilages.

coronary ligament of liver
Ligament connecting the posterior face of the liver to the inferior face of the diaphragm.

coronary sinus
Enlargement of the terminal part of the great cardiac vein, emptying into the right auricle.

coronoid process of ulna
Bony protrusion in front of the upper extremity of the ulna, articulating with the trochlea of the humerus to allow the forearm to flex and extend.

corpus albicans
Fibrous mass formed by the degeneration of the corpus luteum in the absence of fertilization.

corpus callosum
Band of white matter connecting the two cerebral hemispheres and ensuring transmission of information from one to the other.

corpus luteum
Mass formed in the ovary by a mature ovarian follicle releasing an ovule; it secretes a hormone that prepares the endometrium to receive the fertilized ovule.

corrugator supercilii muscle
Small muscle located above the orbit allowing the eyebrows to lift and the skin of the forehead to crease.

costal cartilage
Connective tissue structure prolonging a rib and articulating with the sternum.

costal part of diaphragm
Part of the diaphragm, inserting on the internal surface of the ribs and costal cartilages.

costocervical trunk
Artery arising from the subclavian artery, whose branches (supreme intercostal artery, deep cervical artery) especially travel toward the deep muscles of the neck, pleura and ribs.

cranium
Rigid structure formed of eight bones (four paired and four unpaired) covering and protecting the brain.

cricoid cartilage
Ring-shaped cartilage located in the lower part of the larynx.

cricothyroid joint
Synovial joint connecting the cricoid and thyroid cartilages; it allows the forward movement of the thyroid cartilage.

cricothyroid muscle
Muscle of the larynx, connecting the cricoid and thyroid cartilages and allowing the vocal cords to tense.

cubital lymph nodes
Nodes located along the basilic vein, filtering lymph from the arm and forearm.

cuboid bone
Bone of the tarsus, articulating with the fourth and fifth metatarsals.

decussation of pyramids
Lower part of the medulla oblongata, where the nerve fibers of the two pyramids intersect.

deep artery of arm
Branch of the brachial artery, irrigating certain arm muscles.

deep artery of thigh
Branch of the femoral artery, irrigating the thigh muscle, hip region and femur.

deep branch of radial nerve
Branch of the radial nerve, innervating the extensor muscles of the hand and fingers.

deep branch of ulnar nerve
Branch of the ulnar nerve, innervating the wrist and certain muscles of the hand.

deep cervical vein
Vein draining the blood of muscles in the back part of the neck to the brachiocephalic or vertebral vein.

deep circumflex iliac artery
Branch of the external iliac artery, irrigating the skin and muscles of the inferior part of the abdomen.

deep circumflex iliac vein
Vein returning blood from the inferior part of the abdomen to the external iliac vein.

deep external pudendal artery
Branch of the femoral artery, irrigating the external genitalia and upper part of the thigh.

deep femoral vein
Vein carrying blood from the median and posterior parts of the thigh to the femoral vein.

deep fibular nerve
Branch of the common fibular nerve, especially innervating the muscles of the front part of the leg and inner back of the foot.

deep flexor muscle of fingers
Muscle connecting the ulna to the distal phalanges of the fingers; it assists in flexion of the last four fingers and wrist.

deep inguinal lymph nodes
Nodes grouped near the femoral vein, filtering lymph especially from the deep regions of the lower limb, clitoris or penis.

deep lymphatic vessel
Vessel draining lymph from the deep structures and organs of the body.

deep palmar arch
Artery of the palm of the hand, formed by the union of a branch of the ulnar artery and the terminal end of the radial artery; it gives rise to the palmar metacarpal arteries.

deep palmar venous arch
Vein of the palm of the hand, associated with the deep palmar arch.

deep plantar arch
Artery of the sole of the foot, formed by the union of the lateral plantar artery and terminal end of the dorsal artery of the foot; it gives rise to the plantar metatarsal arteries.

deep transverse metacarpal ligament
Ligament connecting the upper part of the second, third, fourth and fifth metacarpals, limiting their movements one to the other.

deferent duct
Canal carrying the spermatozoa of the epididymus to the prostate.

deltoid branch of deep artery of arm
Branch of the deep artery of the arm, irrigating the coracobrachial and deltoid muscles.

deltoid muscle
Thick muscle covering the shoulder, between the clavicle, scapula and humerus; it assists in several movements of the arm (abduction, flexion, extension, rotation).

deltopectoral lymph nodes
Nodes located beneath the clavicle, filtering lymph from the pectoral region.

depressor muscle of angle of mouth
Muscle connecting the mandible to the angle of the mouth, allowing it to be lowered.

depressor muscle of eyebrow
Muscle extending from the frontal bone to the eyebrow, allowing it to lower.

depressor muscle of lower lip
Muscle connecting the mandible to the lower lip, allowing it to be lowered.

descending aorta
Part of the aorta formed by the thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta.

descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery
Branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, irrigating the thigh muscles.

descending colon
Third segment of the colon, in the left part of the abdomen.

descending genicular artery
Branch of the femoral artery, irrigating the knee and upper part of the leg.

diaphragm
Muscle separating the thorax from the abdomen; its contraction increases the volume of the thoracic cage and lungs.

diaphragmatic surface of spleen
Outer part of the spleen in contact with the diaphragm.

distal phalanx of fourth toe
Last phalanx of the fourth toe, articulating with the medial phalanx.

distal phalanx of great toe
Second and last phalanx of the big toe, articulating with the proximal phalanx.

distal phalanx of index finger
Last phalanx of the index finger, connected to the medial phalanx.

distal phalanx of little finger
Last phalanx of the little finger, connected to the medial phalanx.

distal phalanx of little toe
Last phalanx of the little toe, articulating with the medial phalanx.

distal phalanx of middle finger
Last phalanx of the middle finger, connected to the medial phalanx.

distal phalanx of ring finger
Last phalanx of the ring finger, connected to the medial phalanx.

distal phalanx of second toe
Last phalanx of the second toe, articulating with the medial phalanx.

distal phalanx of third toe
Last phalanx of the third toe, articulating with the medial phalanx.

distal phalanx of thumb
Last phalanx of the thumb, connected to the proximal phalanx.

dorsal artery of foot
Extension of the anterior tibial artery, irrigating the ankle and back of the foot.

dorsal digital arteries of foot
Branches of the dorsal interosseous arteries, irrigating the back of the toes.

dorsal digital nerves of foot
Nerves innervating the big toe and second toe.

dorsal digital veins of foot
Veins running across the dorsal side of the toes; they join to form the dorsal metatarsal veins.

dorsal fascia of hand
Fibrous membrane of the back of the hand, extended by the retinaculum of the extensor muscles.

dorsal interosseous muscles of foot
Muscles located near the back of the foot, connecting the metatarsals to the proximal phalanges of the last four toes; they allow the toes to flex and spread from each other.

dorsal interosseous muscles of hand
Muscles occupying the intermetacarpal spaces located near the dorsum of the hand, connecting the metacarpals to the proximal phalanges of the last four fingers; they allow the fingers to bend and spread apart.

dorsal metacarpal veins
Veins draining blood from the four medial fingers to the dorsal venous network of the hand.

dorsal metatarsal arteries
Arteries arising in the arcuate artery and giving rise to the dorsal digital arteries of the foot.

dorsal metatarsal veins
Veins arising from the dorsal digital veins of the foot and ending at the dorsal venous arch of the foot.

dorsal nerve of penis
In men, branch of the pudental nerve innervating the penis.

dorsal region of foot
Upper side of the foot.

dorsal scapular artery
Branch of the subclavian artery, irrigating various muscles of the upper back, including the rhomboid muscles.

dorsal scapular nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the rhomboid and elevator muscles of the scapula.

dorsal scapular vein
Vein collecting blood from the upper back and emptying it into the subclavian vein.

dorsal venous arch of foot
Vein of the back of the foot, connecting the small saphenous vein and great saphenous vein.

dorsal venous network of foot
Superficial veins of the back of the foot, emptying into the great and small saphenous veins at the two extremities of a transverse arch.

duodenum
Initial segment of the small intestine, divided into four parts (superior, descending, inferior, ascending) communicating with the stomach and receiving secretions from the liver and pancreas.

dura mater
Outer meninx, thick and resistant, formed of fibrous tissue.

ear
Organ of hearing and balance made up of three parts: the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear.

earlobe
Fleshy extremity of the outer ear, having no cartilage.

eighth rib
First false rib.

eighth thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the seventh and ninth thoracic vertebrae.

elbow
Joint connecting the arm to the forearm.

elevator muscle of angle of mouth
Muscle connecting the maxilla to the angle of the mouth, allowing it to be raised.

elevator muscle of scapula
Muscle connecting the first four cervical vertebrae to the scapula; it especially allows the scapula to be lifted and the head to be inclined.

elevator muscle of upper lip
Muscle connecting the maxilla to the skin of the upper lip, allowing it to be raised.

elevator muscle of upper lip and wing of nose
Muscle connecting the maxilla to the nasal ala and upper lip; it allows the upper lip to be raised and the nostrils to dilate.

eleventh rib
First floating rib.

eleventh thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the tenth and twelfth thoracic vertebrae.

endometrium
Mucous membrane lining the inside of the uterus to receive the fertilized ovule; its cyclical destruction in the absence of fertilization causes menstruation.

epicranial aponeurosis
Fibrous layer connecting the occipital muscle to the frontal muscle and covering the roof of the skull.

epididymis
Long canal folded on itself, located above and behind the testicle, in which spermatozoa produced by the seminifer tubes are stored and mature until ejaculation.

epiglottis
Mobile cartilaginous lamina located in the upper part of the larynx, directing food to the esophagus at the moment of swallowing and preventing food from entering the lower airways.

esophagial hiatus
Muscular opening of the diaphragm, allowing the passage of the esophagus and vagus nerves.

esophagus
Muscular membranous channel forming the upper part of the digestive tract, between the pharynx and the stomach.

ethmoid bone
Irregular unpaired bone located behind the nasal cavity, at the juncture of the face and skull.

extensor muscle of index
Muscle connecting the ulna to the index finger, allowing it to extend; it also assists in the extension of the hand at the wrist.

extensor muscle of little finger
Muscle connecting the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the phalanges of the little finger, allowing it to extend.

extensor retinaculum of muscles of hand
Fibrous layer covering the tendons of the extensor muscles of the hand.

external acoustic meatus
Bony canal in the temporal bone through which sounds captured by the pinna reach the cavity of the tympanic membrane.

external carotid artery
Branch of the common carotid artery, irrigating the face, neck and scalp.

external iliac artery
Terminal branch of the common iliac artery, irrigating part of the pelvis and thigh.

external iliac lymph nodes
Nodes grouped near the external iliac vein and artery, filtering lymph especially from the abdominal wall and certain viscera of the pelvic region.

external iliac vein
Extension of the femoral vein, joining the internal iliac vein at the pelvis to form the common iliac vein.

external intercostal muscles
Muscles of the thoracic cage, connecting the ribs to each other; chiefly active during inhalation, they especially allow the ribs to be lifted.

external jugular vein
Superficial vein, draining blood from the brain, face and neck, to the suclavian vein.

external nasal veins
Veins carrying blood from the nose to the facial or angular vein.

external oblique muscle
Broad thin muscle connecting the last eight ribs to the iliac crest; it allows flexion and rotation of the trunk, compression of the internal organs and assists in exhaling.

external pudendal veins
Veins receiving certain veins of the external genitalia and emptying into the great saphenous vein.

eye
Organ of vision serving to perceive shapes, distances, colors and movements.

eyebrow
Arched group of short hairs above the eye, protecting it from light and perspiration.

eyelashes
Short curled hairs on the outer edge of the eyelids; they prevent dust and other foreign particles from depositing on the eye.

facial artery
Branch of the external carotid artery, especially irrigating part of the face, palate and tonsils.

facial nerve
Mixed cranial nerve controlling facial movements and involved in taste sensations.

facial vein
Extension of the angular vein, running along the bottom of the face and emptying into the internal jugular vein.

falciform ligament
Fold of the peritonium, separating the right and left lobes of the liver.

false ribs
Ribs (3 pairs) sharing the same costal cartilage, located under the true ribs.

female external genital organs
Sex organs specific to women, located on the exterior of the body and ensuring reproduction; together they form the vulva.

femoral artery
Main artery of the thigh, running along the inner side of the femur; it extends the external iliac artery.

femoral nerve
Nerve arising from the lombar plexus, especially innervating the flexor muscles of the thigh and the extensor muscles of the leg.

femoral vein
Extension of the popliteal vein, draining the deep regions of the thigh; as it enters the abdomen, it becomes the external iliac vein.

femur
Long paired bone forming the skeleton of the thigh between the hip and knee joints; it is the longest and largest bone in the human body.

fibrous capsule
Thin fibrous membrane enveloping the kidney.

fibrous sheaths of fingers
Membranes covering the proximal and medial phalanges of the fingers.

fibrous sheaths of toes
Membranes covering the phalanges of the toes on their plantar side.

fibula
Paired bone, long and slender, parallel to the tibia with which it forms the skeleton of the leg.

fibular artery
Branch of the posterior tibial artery, irrigating outside the calf muscles and ankle region.

fibular collateral ligament
Ligament extending from the femur to the ulna, on the lateral side of the knee, assisting in stabilizing the joint.

fibular veins
Veins running through the ankle and part of the outside of the leg to the posterior tibial veins.

fifth cervical vertebra
Vertebra located between the fourth and sixth cervical vertebrae.

fifth lumbar vertebra
Last lombar vertebra, located between the fourth lombar vertebra and the first sacral vertebra.

fifth metacarpal
Bone of the metacarpus, articulating with the hamate bone and the proximal phalange of the little finger.

fifth metatarsal
Bone of the metatarsus, articulating with the cuboid bone and proximal phalanx of the little toe.

fifth rib
Fifth true rib.

fifth sacral vertebra
Last sacral vertebra, located between the fourth sacral vertebra and the coccyx.

fifth thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the fourth and sixth thoracic vertebrae.

fimbriae of uterine tube
Extensions of the uterine tube, undulating and sweeping the ovary at the moment of ovulation to create a current that carries the ovum toward the tube.

fingers
Extensions of the hand, made up of various articulated bones (phalanges), whose terminal end is covered with a nail.

first lumbar vertebra
Vertebra located between the twelfth thoracic vertebra and the second lombar vertebra.

first metacarpal
Bones of the metacarpus, articulating with the trapezium bone and the proximal phalange of the thumb.

first metatarsal
Bone of the metatarsus, articulating with the medial cuneiform bone and proximal phalanx of the big toe. It is the largest of the metatarsals.

first rib
First true rib, forming the upper extremity of the thoracic cage; it is the smallest rib, and also the widest.

first sacral vertebra
Vertebra fused to the sacrum, located between the fifth lombar vertebra and the second sacral vertebra.

first thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the vertebra prominens (seventh cervical vertebra) and the second thoracic vertebra.

flexor retinaculum of foot
Ligament connecting the medial malleolus to the calcaneus, anchoring the tendons of the posterior tibial muscles and long flexor muscles of the toes and big toe.

flexor retinaculum of hand
Ligament of the posterior side of the carpus beneath which various muscles of the hand run.

floating ribs
Ribs (2 pairs) whose anterior extremity is not attached to the sternum, forming the lower part of the thoracic cage.

flocculus
Small lobe of the anterior side, beneath the cerebellum.

foot
Terminal part of the lower limb, resting on the ground during upright stance.

foramen cecum of frontal bone
Depression of the frontal bone, allowing the passage of various veins.

foramen lacerum
Aperture at the base of the skull, allowing the passage of the internal carotid artery and various nerves.

foramen magnum
Aperture of the occipital bone through which the medulla oblongata passes.

foramen ovale
Canal of the sphenoid bone, allowing the passage of the mandibular nerve.

foramen spinosum
Canal of the sphenoid bone, allowing the passage of the middle meningeal artery.

forearm
Part of the upper limb between the elbow and wrist.

forehead
Upper part of the face between the eyebrows, hairline and temples.

fourth cervical vertebra
Vertebra located between the third and fifth cervical vertebrae.

fourth lumbar vertebra
Vertebra located between the third and fifth lombar vertebrae.

fourth metacarpal
Bone of the metacarpus, articulating with the hamate bone and the proximal phalange of the ring finger.

fourth metatarsal
Bone of the metatarsus, articulating with the cuboid bone and proximal phalanx of the fourth toe.

fourth rib
Fourth true rib.

fourth sacral vertebra
Vertebra fused to the sacrum, located between the third and fifth sacral vertebrae.

fourth thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the third and fifth thoracic vertebrae.

fourth ventricle
Cavity located between the cerebellum and brain stem, assisting in the production of cerebrospinal fluid.

frontal bone
Unpaired bone of the skull, forming the forehead and roof of the orbits.

frontal branch of superficial temporal artery
Terminal branch of the superficial temporal artery, irrigating the region of the forehead.

frontal lobe
Lobe located in the anterior part of the cerebral hemispheres, behind the forehead, and responsible for reasoning, planning, voluntary movements, emotions and spoken language.

frontal muscle
Large muscle covering the forehead, allowing the skin to crease.

frontal pole
Prominent rounded part at the anterior extremity of each cerebral hemisphere.

fundus of stomach
Upper part of the stomach.

fundus of uterus
Rounded upper extremity of the uterus, above the orifices of the uterine tubes.

gallbladder
Small organ located beneath the liver, serving to store and excrete bile.

ganglion
Enlargement formed by a mass of cell bodies of neurons belonging to the peripheric nervous system.

gastric canal
Channel formed by furrows located along the length of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

gastric folds
Folds of the internal mucosa of the stomach; they are especially visible when the stomach is contracted.

gastric impression of spleen
Posterior part of the spleen in contact with the stomach.

gastrocnemius muscle
Muscle formed of two heads (lateral and medial) connecting the femur to the calcaneus; it allows the plantar flexion of the foot and knee.

gastrosplenic ligament
Peritoneal ligament connecting the spleen and greater curvature of the stomach.

genicular veins
Veins draining blood from the various components of the knee and emptying it into the popliteal vein.

genioglossus muscle
Muscle connecting the mandible to the hyoid bone and tongue; it mainly allows the tongue to move forward or backward.

geniohyoid muscle
Muscle connecting the mandible and hyoid bone; it especially allows the lower jaw to be lowered.

glenoid cavity
Hollow articular surface of the scapula, in which the head of the humerus pivots.

glossopharyngeal nerve
Mixed cranial nerve associated with swallowing, gag reflex, taste and sensations from the pharynx and posterior part of the tongue.

gracilis muscle
Muscle connecting the pubis to the tibia; it allows the thigh to move toward the axis of the body (adduction) and the leg to flex and rotate inward.

great adductor muscle
Muscle connecting the pubis and ischial tuberosity to the femur; it allows the thigh to move toward the axis of the body (adduction), rotate outward, flex and extend.

great auricular nerve
Nerve arising from the cervical plexus, innervating the skin of the pinna and part of the cheek.

great cardiac vein
Vein draining blood from the left side of the heart.

great saphenous vein
Vein collecting the blood of the medial side of the leg and thigh and receiving certain veins of the foot. It is the longest vein in the body.

greater curvature of stomach
Left border of the stomach on which the great omentum inserts.

greater gluteal muscle
Thick muscle forming the thigh, allowing the trunk to be supported in a vertical position.

greater occipital nerve
Twig of the second cervical nerve, especially innervating the semispinosus muscle of the head and back part of the scalp.

greater palatine foramen
Canal of the hard palate, allowing the passage of vessels and nerves.

greater pectoral muscle
Muscle of the thorax formed of two heads, connecting the sternum and clavicle to the humerus; it allows the adduction and rotation of the arm.

greater psoas muscle
Muscle connecting the posterior abdominal wall to the lesser trochanter; it allows flexion of the thigh or forward bending of the trunk.

greater splanchnic nerve
Nerve arising from several nodes of the thoracic sympathetic chain and ending at the celiac plexus; it innervates the abdominal viscera.

greater trochanter
Protrusion of the external part of the upper extremity of the femur, where several muscles of the thigh and buttock insert.

greater tubercle
Protrusion of the neck of the humerus, where various shoulder muscles insert.

greater zygomatic muscle
Muscle connecting the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth; it assists in smiling and laughing.

habenular commissure
Fibrous band connecting the two parts of the habenula (cord of white matter arising from the epiphysis).

hairs of head
Filaments covering the head and especially protecting the skin of the skull; their appearance and color vary depending on the individual and age.

hamate bone
Bone of the lower row of the carpus, articulating with the fourth and fifth metacarpals.

hand
Terminal part of the upper limb, having a tactile and prehensile function.

hard palate
Bony separation between the buccal and nasal cavity, extended by the soft palate.

head
Upper part of the body, supported by the neck and containing the main sensory organs and the brain.

head of femur
Upper extremity of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum of the iliac bone to form the hip joint.

head of fibula
Upper extremity of the fibula.

head of humerus
Rounded extremity of the humerus, articulating with the glenoid cavity of the scapula at the shoulder.

head of radius
Upper extremity of the radius, articulating with the humerus and ulna.

head of ulna
Lower extremity of the ulna, articulating with the radius and wrist.

heart
Muscular organ divided into four chambers whose autonomous rhythmic contractions cause blood to circulate throughout the body.

heel
Hind part of the foot, corresponding to the calcaneus.

helix
Fold of the pinna.

hemiazygos vein
Vein receiving the lower left intercostal veins before emptying into the azygos vein.

hepatic veins
Veins (3) collecting blood from the liver and emptying it into the inferior vena cava.

hilum of spleen
Narrow vertical surface comprising the entry point of the splenic vessels and nerves.

hip
Joint connecting the thigh with the pelvis.

horizontal fissure of right lung
Fissure dividing the superior and middle lobes of the right lung.

humerus
Long, very large, paired bone forming the skeleton of the arm, between the shoulder and elbow joints.

hymen
Fine perforated membrane formed by a fold of the vaginal mucous membrane, separating the vagina from the vulva.

hyoepiglottic ligament
Medial ligament connecting the hyoid bone and epiglottis.

hyoid bone
Unpaired bone supporting the larynx and serving as an insertion for several muscles of the tongue, pharynx and larynx.

hypoglossal nerve
Cranial nerve, mainly motor, controlling the movements of the tongue to enable swallowing, chewing and talking.

hypothalamus
All the small formations of gray matter located beneath the thalamus, controlling the hormonal secretions of the hypophysis and the activity of the autonomic nervous system.

ileum
Terminal segment of the small intestine, connecting with the large intestine.

iliac crest
Upper border of the iliac bone.

iliac muscle
Muscle connecting the iliac fossa to the lesser trochanter; it mainly allows flexion of the thigh.

ilio-inguinal nerve
Nerve arising from the lombar plexus, innervating the skin of part of the abdomen, genitalia and thigh.

iliofemoral ligament
Triangular ligament extending between the ilium and femur, on the anterior side of the hip.

iliohypogastric nerve
Nerve arising from the lombar plexus, innervating the skin of part of the abdominal wall and genitalia.

iliotibial tract
Thick part of the fascia lata, descending from the iliac crest and covering the lateral part of the thigh to the lateral condyle of the tibia; it assists in stabilizing the hip joint.

ilium
Upper part of the iliac bone, flared in shape.

incisive canals
Small canals allowing the passage of blood vessels and nerves between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity.

incisive foramina
Apertures of the hard palate, allowing the passage of nasopalatine nerves.

incisor
Each of eight flat teeth located in the front of the maxilla and mandible, having a cutting edge that allows them to bite into food.

index finger
Second digit of the hand.

inferior alveolar artery
Branch of the maxillary artery, irrigating the lower jaw and chin.

inferior angle of scapula
Angle formed by the juncture of the medial and lateral borders of the scapula.

inferior colliculus
Each of two elevations located on the dorsal side of the midbrain, below; they are part of the auditory pathways.

inferior epigastric artery
Branch of the external iliac artery, irrigating the anterior and low abdominal wall.

inferior epigastric vein
Vein of the abdominal region, emptying into the external iliac vein.

inferior extensor retinaculum
Ligament of the anterior side of the ankle, between the two malleoluses, anchoring the muscle tendons during dorsal movements of the foot.

inferior fibular retinaculum
Ligament extending from the calcaneus to the retinaculum of the extensor muscles, anchoring the long and short fibular muscles to the outer side of the foot.

inferior gluteal artery
Branch of the internal iliac artery, irrigating the buttock and back of the thigh.

inferior gluteal nerve
Nerve arising from the sacral plexus, innervating the gluteus maximus muscle and the skin at the back of the thigh.

inferior gluteal veins
Veins draining blood from the back of the thigh and muscles of the buttock; they unite in a common trunk that joins the internal iliac vein.

inferior labial artery
Branch of the facial artery, irrigating the lower lip.

inferior labial veins
Veins carrying blood from the region of the lower lip to the facial vein.

inferior lobe
Lower part of the lung separated from the superior lobe and middle lobe (in the right lung) by an oblique fissure.

inferior mesenteric artery
Anterior branch of the abdominal aorta, irrigating the descending colon and left half of the transverse colon.

inferior nasal concha
Paired bone, fine and curved, located in the lower part of the nasal cavity.

inferior phrenic artery
Lateral branch of the abdominal aorta, irrigating the diaphragm and surrenal glands.

inferior phrenic veins
Veins collecting blood from the inferior part of the diaphragm; the right phrenic vein empties into the inferior vena cava, while the left phrenic vein empties into the left surrenal vein.

inferior rectal nerves
Nerves arising from the sacral plexus, innervating the anal region.

inferior superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Nodes located beneath the saphenous vein, filtering lymph from superficial elements of the lower limb.

inferior thyroid artery
Terminal branch of the thyrocervical trunk, irrigating the thyroid gland.

inferior thyroid vein
Small vein receiving the blood of the isthmus of the thyroid gland and emptying into the left brachiocephalic vein.

inferior trunk of brachial plexus
Part of the brachial plexus formed by the eighth cervical nerve and the first thoracic nerve.

inferior ulnar collateral artery
Branch of the brachial artery, irrigating the muscles of the elbow and forearm.

inferior vena cava
Vein draining blood from the regions of the body located below the diaphragm into the right atrium.

infra-orbital artery
Branch of the maxillary artery, irrigating the region of the maxilla, upper dental arch, nose and cheek.

infraorbital foramen
Front aperture of the maxilla, allowing the passage of the nerves and blood vessels of the face.

infraorbital nerve
Branch of the maxillary nerve, innervating the cheek, upper lip and lower eyelid.

infraspinous fascia
Fascia covering the infraspinous muscle.

infraspinous muscle
Muscle connecting the scapula, beneath the spine, to the greater tubercle of the humerus; it especially allows the outward rotation of the arm.

infundibulum of uterine tube
Extremity of the uterine tube, in which the ovule penetrates.

inguinal ligament
Ligament extending from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubis; it also forms the lower border of the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle of the abdomen.

innermost intercostal muscles
Muscles of the thoracic cage, connecting the ribs to each other; with the inner and outer intercostal muscles, they assist in maintaining the thoracic cage.

intercapitular veins of hand
Veins ensuring communication between the palmar and dorsal venous systems of the hand.

intercostal lymph nodes
Nodes located between the ribs, filtering lymph especially from the posterior part of the trunk and parietal pleura.

intercostal nerves
Nerves innervating the intercostal muscles, as well as part of the diaphragm and abdominal wall.

intermediate nerve
Sensory root of the facial nerve, especially innervating the submandibular and sublingual glands.

internal carotid artery
Branch of the common carotid artery, irrigating the encephalus and eyeballs.

internal iliac artery
Terminal branch of the common iliac artery, irrigating the pelvis, genitalia and inner thigh.

internal iliac lymph nodes
Nodes grouped near the internal iliac vein and artery, filtering lymph from the viscera of the pelvic region, perineum and buttocks.

internal iliac vein
Vein of the lower part of the pelvis, joining the external iliac vein to form the common iliac vein.

internal intercostal muscles
Muscles of the thoracic cage, connecting the ribs to each other; chiefly active during exhalation, they especially allow the ribs to be lowered.

internal jugular vein
Vein draining blood from the brain, face and neck; it joins the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.

internal oblique muscle
Muscle connecting the iliac crest to the last four costal cartilages; it allows flexion and rotation of the trunk, as well as compression of the internal organs.

internal pudendal artery
Branch of the internal iliac artery, irrigating the external genitalia, anal canal and perineum.

internal pudendal vein
Vein carrying blood from the region of the perineum to the internal iliac vein.

internal thoracic artery
Branch of the subclavian artery, irrigating the anterior part of the thoracic cage, anterior parts of the mediastinum and diaphragm.

internal thoracic veins
Veins carrying blood from the anterior part of the thorax to the brachiocephalic vein.

interosseous membrane of forearm
Thin fibrous membrane connecting the medial border of the radius and the lateral border of the ulna; it serves as an insertion point for various muscles.

interthalamic adhesion
Small area of gray matter connecting the medial side of the two thalamuses; it is variable.

interureteric crest
Membranous fold connecting the two internal ureteric orifices, forming the summit of the trigone of the urinary bladder.

interventricular septum
Inner wall of the heart, separating the two ventricles.

intervertebral disk
Flat, rounded cartilaginous structure separating the vertebrae; its elasticity provides mobility to the vertebral column.

iris
Colored part of the front portion of the eye, made up of smooth muscles whose contraction and dilatation change the diameter of the pupil.

ischial spine
Bony protrusion of the ischium where various muscles and ligaments insert.

ischial tuberosity
Bony vertical protrusion of the lower extremity of the ischium.

ischium
Lower part of the iliac bone.

isthmus of uterine tube
Narrow part of the uterine tube, opening into the uterus.

jejunum
Middle segment of the small intestine between the duodenum and ileum, ensuring the major part of nutrient absorption.

jugular foramen
Aperture between the temporal and occipital bones, allowing the passage of the cranial nerves and blood vessels (especially the internal jugular vein).

jugular venous arch
Vein connecting the two anterior jugular veins.

kidney
Each of two organs located in the abdomen whose main function is to filter the blood and produce urine.

knee
Synovial joint connecting the femur to the tibia, fibula and patella.

labium majus
Skin folds bounding the vulva and protecting the vagina opening.

labium minus
Folds of mucous membrane located inside the labia majora.

lacrimal bone
Paired bone forming part of the medial wall of the orbits.

lactiferous duct
Channel carrying milk secreted by the mammary gland to the nipple.

lactiferous sinus
Enlargement of the galactophorous duct in which mother’s milk accumulates between two feedings.

large intestine
Last segment of the digestive tract, consisting of the cecum, colon and rectum, connecting the small intestine to the anus.

laryngopharynx
Lower part of the pharynx, communicating with the larynx and esophagus.

larynx
Muscular cartilaginous channel serving as a transition between the pharynx and trachea and containing the vocal cords.

lateral abdominal cutaneous branch of intercostal nerve
Branch of the intercostal nerve, assisting in innervating the skin of the lateral and posterior parts of the abdomen.

lateral arcuate ligament
Ligament connecting the transverse process of the first lombar vertebra and twelfth rib; it especially serves as a point of insertion for part of the muscle fibers of the diaphragm.

lateral circumflex femoral artery
Branch of the deep artery of the thigh, irrigating the hip and thigh muscles.

lateral circumflex femoral veins
Veins of the thigh, emptying generally into the femoral vein.

lateral condyle of femur
Rounded protrusion of the external part of the lower extremity of the femur, allowing articulation with the tibia.

lateral condyle of tibia
Rounded protrusion of the upper extremity of the tibia, allowing articulation with the femur.

lateral cord
Bundle of nerve fibers of the brachial plexus, giving rise especially to the lateral and musculocutaneous pectoral nerves, as well as half of the median nerve.

lateral cuneiform
Bone of the tarsus, articulating with the navicular bone and third metatarsal.

lateral cutaneous branch of iliohypogastric nerve
Branch of the iliohypogastric nerve, innervating the skin of the buttock region.

lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh
Branch of the lombar plexus, innervating the skin of the lateral part of the thigh.

lateral epicondyle
Outer protrusion of the lower extremity of the humerus, serving to attach various extensor muscles of the hand and fingers.

lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle
Part of the gastrocnemius muscle inserting on the lateral condyle of the femur.

lateral head of triceps of arm
Part of the brachial triceps inserting into the posterior side of the humerus, on the outer side.

lateral inferior genicular artery
Branch of the popliteal artery, irrigating partly the knee region, outside and inside.

lateral intermuscular septum of arm
Membrane of fibrous tissue extending from the lateral border of the humerus to the fascia of the arm.

lateral lamina of pterygoid process
External part of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone.

lateral malleolus
Bony protrusion of the outer ankle, formed by the lower epiphysis of the fibula.

lateral meniscus
Semilunar fibrocartilaginous structure located on the outer side of the knee and assisting in its articulation.

lateral nasal artery
Branch of the facial artery, irrigating the hind part of the nose and nasal ala.

lateral pectoral cutaneous branch of intercostal nerve
Branch of the intercostal nerve, assisting in innervating the skin of the lateral and posterior parts of the thorax.

lateral pectoral nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the pectoral muscles and part of the shoulder.

lateral plantar artery
Terminal branch of the posterior tibial artery, assisting in forming the deep plantar arch.

lateral sulcus
Sulcus running along the external side of the brain, separating the frontal and temporal lobes.

lateral superior genicular artery
Branch of the popliteal artery, irrigating partly the knee region, inside and above.

lateral tarsal artery
Branch of the dorsal artery of the foot, irrigating the region of the tarsus.

lateral thoracic artery
Branch of the axillary artery, irrigating the pectoral muscles and, in women, the mammary glands.

lateral thoracic vein
Vein collecting blood from the lateral part of the thorax and emptying it into the axillary vein.

latissimus dorsi muscle
Large flat muscle connecting the lombosacral spine to the humerus; it allows the arm to rotate inward and to move toward the axis of the body (adduction).

left atrium
Cavity of the heart, receiving oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins.

left colic flexure
Curvature formed by the colon between its transverse and descending portions.

left coronary artery
Artery originating in the aorta and irrigating the left side of the myocardium.

left crus of diaphragm
Musculotendinous band securing the diaphragm to the vertebral column; it inserts into the first two lombar vertebrae, to the left of the aorta.

left gastric artery
Branch of the celiac trunk, irrigating the superior inner part of the stomach.

left inferior lobar bronchus
Twig of the main left brochus, leading to the inferior lobe of the left lung.

left inferior pulmonary vein
Vein returning blood oxygenated in the inferior part of the left lung to the left atrium of the heart.

left lobe of liver
Part of the liver located to the left of the falciform ligament.

left lumbar lymph nodes
Abdominal nodes grouped near the abdominal aorta.

left lung
Respiratory organ divided into two lobes, in which blood from the left pulmonary artery is freed of carbon dioxide and enriched with oxygen.

left main bronchus
Bronchus emanating from the trachea, allowing air to enter and exit the left lung.

left pulmonary artery
Branch of the pulmonary trunk, carrying deoxygenated blood to the left lung.

left semilunar cusp of the pulmonary valve
One of three components of the pulmonary valve, assisting in closing the orifice during ventricular systole.

left superior lobar bronchus
Twig of the main left brochus, leading to the superior lobe of the left lung.

left superior pulmonary vein
Vein returning blood oxygenated in the superior part of the left lung to the left atrium of the heart.

left suprarenal vein
Vein carrying blood from the left surrenal gland to the left renal vein.

left testicular vein
In men, vein carrying blood from the left testicle to the left renal vein.

left ventricle
Thick-walled cavity of the heart, propelling oxygen-rich blood into the aorta to irrigate the body.

leg
Part of the lower limb between the knee and ankle.

lesser occipital nerve
Nerve arising from the cervical plexus, innervating mainly the skin of part of the pinna.

lesser pectoral muscle
Flat muscle connecting the third, fourth and fifth ribs to the coracoid process of the scapula; it allows the shoulder to be lowered or the ribs to be raised, thus contributing to inhaling.

lesser trochanter
Protrusion of the internal part of the upper extremity of the femur, where the tendon of the iliopsoas inserts.

lesser tubercle
Anterior protrusion of the neck of the humerus, where the subscapular muscle inserts.

lesser zygomatic muscle
Muscle connecting the zygomatic bone to the upper lip; it assists in smiling and laughing.

ligament of ovary
Ligament connecting the ovary to the upper part of the uterus.

linea alba
Vertical band of fibrous tissue separating the two right muscles of the abdomen.

lingual tonsil
Each of two lymphoid organs located at the base of the tongue, contributing to the immune defense.

lingula of left lung
Lower portion of the superior lobe of the left lung.

little finger
Fifth and smallest digit of the hand.

liver
Large gland, located in the upper right abdomen, playing an important role in digestion and metabolism.

lobes of mammary gland
Parts of the mammary gland, secreting milk in the lactiferous sinuses.

long abductor muscle of thumb
Muscle connecting the radius and ulna to the base of the first metacarpal; it assists the thumb to extend and allows it to move away from the axis of the hand (abduction).

long adductor muscle
Muscle connecting the pubis to the femur; it allows the thigh to move toward the axis of the body (adduction), rotate outward and flex.

long extensor muscle of great toe
Muscle connecting the tibia to the distal phalanx of the big toe; it allows extension of the big toe and dorsal flexion of the foot.

long extensor muscle of thumb
Muscle connecting the ulna to the distal phalanx of the thumb, allowing it to extend.

long extensor muscle of toes
Muscle connecting the fibula and lateral condyle of the tibia to the last four toes; it allows them to extend.

long fibular muscle
Muscle connecting the tibia and fibula to the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones; it assists in several movements of the foot (abduction, plantar flexion, outward rotation).

long flexor muscle of great toe
Muscle connecting the fibula to the distal phalanx of the big toe, allowing its plantar flexion.

long flexor muscle of thumb
Muscle connecting the radius to the distal phalanx of the thumb, allowing it to flex.

long flexor muscle of toes
Muscle connecting the tibia to the distal phalanges of the last four toes, assisting in their flexion.

long head of biceps of arm
Part of the brachial biceps inserting into the scapula, above the glenoid cavity.

long head of biceps of thigh
Part of the femoral biceps inserting on the ischial tuberosity.

long head of triceps of arm
Part of the brachial triceps inserting on the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula.

long palmar muscle
Muscle connecting the medial epicondyle of the humerus to the palmar aponeurosis; it allows flexion of the wrist.

long radial extensor muscle of wrist
Muscle connecting the humerus to the second metacarpal; it allows the hand to fold backward (extension) and to move away from the axis of the body (abduction).

long thoracic nerve
Nerve originating from the brachial plexus, innervating mainly the serratus anterior muscle.

longitudinal cerebral fissure
Deep sulcus separating the two cerebral hemispheres.

lower canine
Canine of the lower dental arch, located between the lateral incisor and first premolar.

lower central incisor
Incisor located in the front section of the lower dental arch.

lower first molar
Molar of the lower dental arch, located between the second premolar and second molar.

lower first premolar
Premolar of the lower dental arch, located between the canine and second premolar.

lower lateral incisor
Incisor of the lower dental arch, located between the central incisor and canine and serving to cut food.

lower limb
Appendage formed by the thigh, leg and foot, connected to the trunk at the hip and allowing upright stance and locomotion.

lower lip
Lip forming the lower contour of the mouth.

lower second molar
Molar of the lower dental arch, located between the first molar and wisdom tooth.

lower second premolar
Premolar of the lower dental arch, located between the first premolar and the first molar.

lower third molar
Last molar of the lower dental arch.

lumbar arteries
Branches of the abdominal aorta, irrigating mainly the posterior and lateral abdominal muscles.

lumbar ganglia
Sympathetic ganglia located on either side of the body of the lombar vertebrae.

lumbar nerves
All five pairs of spinal nerves, innervating the abdominal wall and thighs.

lumbar quadrate muscle
Flat muscle connecting the iliac crest to the twelfth rib; it allows lateral inclination of the trunk.

lumbar veins
Veins draining especially blood from the posterior abdominal wall, lombar region of the spinal cord and meninges; they then join various veins of the thorax.

lumbar vertebrae
Massive vertebrae (5) located beneath the thoracic vertebrae at the abdomen.

lumbosacral trunk
Nerve formed by the fourth and fifth lombar nerves, ending at the sacral plexus.

lumbrical muscles of hand
Small muscles inserted into the flexor tendons, assisting in the flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint and extension of the interphalangeal joints.

lunate bone
Semilunar bone of the upper row of the carpus, articulating with the radius and other bones of the carpus at the wrist.

lunate surface
Peripheral part of the acetabulum.

major renal calices
Excretory channels formed by the union of several minor renal calices and coming together to form the renal pelvis.

male external genital organs
Sex organs specific to men, located on the exterior of the body and ensuring reproduction; they consist of the penis and testicles.

male urethra
Channel originating at the base of the bladder, crossing the prostate and running along the penis to the external urethral meatus; it allows both urination and ejaculation.

mammillary body
Each of two masses of gray matter protruding on the inferior side of the space between the cerebral peduncles, beneath the hypothalamus.

mandible
Unpaired bone forming the lower jaw and articulating with the temporal bones.

mandibular foramen
Aperture of the posterior part of the mandible, allowing the passage of the nerves and blood vessels of the face.

mandibular lymph node
Each of the nodes located near the inferior border of the mandible, draining lymph from the superficial tissues of the head and neck.

mandibular nerve
Terminal branch of the trigeminal nerve, whose twigs especially innervate the masticating muscles and lower half of the skin of the face, mouth and teeth.

manubrium
Upper part of the sternum, articulating with the two first costal cartilages and the clavicles.

marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve
Branch of the facial nerve, innervating the risorius muscle, as well as several muscles of the chin region.

masseter muscle
Powerful muscle connecting the mandible to the upper jaw and serving to chew.

mastoid process
Bony protrusion of the temporal bone, containing two air-filled cavities adjacent to the middle ear.

maxilla
Paired bone forming the upper jaw, part of the hard palate, orbits and nasal cavity.

maxillary artery
Branch of the external carotid artery, whose multiple twigs irrigate various regions of the head (jaws, teeth, muscles of mastication, ears, nose, palate, meninges).

maxillary nerve
Terminal branch of the trigeminal nerve, whose twigs especially innervate part of the skin of the face, inside part of the nasal cavity and upper teeth.

maxillary veins
Veins arising from the pterygoid plexus vein, joining with the superficial temporal vein at the parotid gland to form the retromandibular vein.

medial arcuate ligament
Ligament connecting the body and transverse process of the first lombar vertebra; it especially serves as a point of insertion for part of the muscle fibers of the diaphragm.

medial circumflex femoral artery
Branch of the deep artery of the thigh, irrigating the hip and thigh muscles.

medial circumflex femoral veins
Veins of the thigh, emptying generally into the femoral vein.

medial collateral artery
Branch of the deep artery of the arm, irrigating mainly the elbow region.

medial condyle of femur
Rounded protrusion of the internal part of the lower extremity of the femur, allowing articulation with the tibia.

medial condyle of tibia
Rounded protrusion of the upper extremity of the tibia, where the internal laternal ligament inserts.

medial cord
Bundle of nerve fibers of the brachial plexus, giving rise especially to the medial pectoral nerves, medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm, ulnar nerves and half the median nerve.

medial cuneiform
Bone of the tarsus, articulating with the navicular bone and first metatarsal.

medial cutaneous nerve of arm
Nerve tissue of the brachial plexus, innervating the skin of the inner arm.

medial cutaneous nerve of forearm
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the skin of the forearm.

medial epicondyle
Inner protrusion of the lower extremity of the humerus, serving to attach various flexor muscles of the hand and fingers.

medial frontobasal artery
Branch of the anterior cerebral artery, irrigating part of the frontal lobe.

medial head of gastrocnemius muscle
Part of the gastrocnemius muscle inserting on the medial condyle of the femur.

medial head of triceps of arm
Part of the brachial triceps inserting into the posterior side of the humerus, on the inner side.

medial inferior genicular artery
Branch of the popliteal artery, irrigating the knee region, below and inside.

medial intermuscular septum of arm
Membrane of fibrous tissue extending from the medial border of the humerus to the fascia of the arm.

medial lamina of pterygoid process
Internal part of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone.

medial malleolus
Bony protrusion of the inner ankle, formed by the lower epiphysis of the tibia.

medial meniscus
Semilunar fibrocartilaginous structure located on the inner side of the knee and assisting in its articulation.

medial palpebral ligament
Ligament connecting the medial extremity of the palpebral tarsus to the maxilla.

medial pectoral nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating partly the pectoral muscles.

medial plantar artery
Terminal branch of the posterior tibial artery, irrigating the middle part of the sole of the foot.

medial superior genicular artery
Branch of the popliteal artery, irrigating mainly the knee region, inside and above.

medial tarsal arteries
Branches of the dorsal artery of the foot, irrigating the inner side of the foot.

median antebrachial vein
Vein running along the forearm to the elbow, where it joins the basilic or cephalic vein.

median nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the various muscles of the anterior part of the forearm and part of the hand.

median sacral artery
Terminal branch of the abdominal aorta, irrigating the sacrum, coccyx and, alternatively, the rectum.

median sacral vein
Vein carrying blood from the anterior sides of the coccyx and sacrum to the left common iliac vein.

median umbilical ligament
Fibrous cord, a remnant of the urachus, extending from the navel to the bladder.

medullary cone
Lower extremity of the spinal cord.

mental foramen
Aperture of the mandible, below the second premolar, allowing the passage of nerves and blood vessels from the lower part of the face.

mental nerve
Branch of the inferior alveolar nerve, innervating the chin and lower lip.

mentalis muscle
Small muscle of the chin, allowing the lower lip to be raised and pushed out.

metacarpus
All five long bones (metacarpals) forming the skeleton of the palm of the hand.

metatarsals
Long bones of the foot forming the metatarsus.

metatarsus
All five long bones (metatarsals) forming the skeleton of the foot.

midbrain
Upper part of the brain stem.

middle cardiac vein
Vein arising near the apex of the heart and emptying into the coronary sinus.

middle cerebral artery
Branch of the internal carotid artery, irrigating the lateral part of the brain.

middle cervical ganglion
Ganglion of the neck, whose twigs especially lead to the thyroid gland and heart; it is absent in some individuals.

middle cuneiform
Bone of the tarsus, articulating with the navicular bone and second metatarsal.

middle finger
Third and longest digit of the hand.

middle genicular artery
Branch of the popliteal artery, especially irrigating the cruciate ligaments of the knee.

middle gluteal muscle
Large thick muscle connecting the ilium to the greater trochanter; it especially allows the thigh to move away from the axis of the body (abduction).

middle lobe
Part of the right lung separated from the superior lobe by a horizontal fissure and from the inferior lobe by an oblique fissure.

middle nasal concha
Paired bone, fine and curved, located in the middle of the nasal cavity.

middle phalanx of fourth toe
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the fourth toe.

middle phalanx of index finger
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the index finger.

middle phalanx of little finger
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the little finger.

middle phalanx of little toe
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the little toe.

middle phalanx of middle finger
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the middle finger.

middle phalanx of ring finger
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the ring finger.

middle phalanx of second toe
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the second toe.

middle phalanx of third toe
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the third toe.

middle scalene muscle
Muscle connecting the transverse processes of certain cervical vertebrae (second to sixth) to the first rib; it especially allows the first rib to be lifted.

middle thyroid veins
Veins receiving blood from the thyroid gland and emptying into the internal jugular vein.

middle trunk of brachial plexus
Part of the brachial plexus formed by the seventh cervical nerve.

minor renal calices
Small excretory channels carrying the urine from the renal papillae to the major renal calices.

mitral valve
Elastic structure preventing reverse flow of the blood of the left ventricle to the left atrium.

molar
Each of 12 large teeth located at the back of the maxilla and mandible, having two or three roots and serving to grind food.

mouth
Initial part of the digestive tube made up of a cavity (oral cavity) surrounded by lips; it allows the ingestion of food and plays a role in tasting, speaking and breathing.

musculocutaneous nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the anterior muscles of the arm and skin of the forearm.

musculophrenic artery
Terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery, especially irrigating the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

musculophrenic veins
Veins collecting blood from certain parts of the diaphragm, thorax and abdomen; they then empty into the internal thoracic veins.

myelencephalon
Lower part of the brain stem, controlling numerous vital functions (breathing, blood pressure, heart rate) and assisting in maintaining homeostasis.

mylohyoid muscle
Muscle connecting the mandible and hyoid bone; it especially allows the lower jaw to be lowered and the tongue to be lifted.

myocardium
Muscle comprising the largest part of the heart, controlling cardiac contractions.

myometrium
Muscular wall of the uterus, contracting involuntarily during childbirth to expel the baby.

nail
Horny plate, flexible and transparent, covering the dorsum of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes.

nape
Hind part of the neck, made up mainly of muscles.

nasal bone
Each of two flat interarticulated bones in the middle of the face forming the bridge of the nose.

nasal cartilages
Cartilaginous laminae of various shapes and sizes, comprising the structure of the nose.

nasal cavity
Each of two cavities, separated by the nasal septum, opening in front through the nostrils and in back into the nasopharynx.

nasal muscle
Muscle connecting the maxilla to the nasal ala; it allows the nostrils to dilate.

nasal vestibule
Anterior part of the nasal cavity, lined with a squamous epithelium (comprised of flat cells).

nasopharynx
Upper part of the pharynx, communicating with the nasal cavity.

navicular bone
Flat bone of the tarsus, articulating with the talus and the three cuneiform bones.

neck
Part of the body joining the head to the trunk and especially containing the cervical vertebrae and larynx.

neck of femur
Narrow part of the femur between the head and trochanters, where several of the ligaments of the hip insert.

neck of fibula
Narrow part of the fibula, between the head and the diaphysis.

neck of radius
Narrow part of the radius, between the head and the body.

ninth rib
Second false rib.

ninth thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the eighth and tenth thoracic vertebrae.

nipple
Projection located in the center of the breast, serving as an outlet for mother’s milk in women.

nose
External organ of the respiratory system that filters, warms and humidifies the air inhaled through the nostrils.

oblique fissure
Fissure dividing the superior and inferior lobes of the left lung, or separating the superior and middle lobes from the inferior lobe of the right lung.

oblique vein of left atrium
Small vein of the posterior part of the left auricle, emptying into the coronary sinus.

obturator artery
Branch of the internal iliac artery, irrigating the hip and pelvic muscles.

obturator nerve
Nerve arising from the lombar plexus, innervating mainly the adductor muscles, as well as the medial region of the thigh.

obturator veins
Veins draining blood from the hip and certain thigh muscles; they join generally the internal iliac vein.

occipital bone
Unpaired bone forming the back and lower part of the skull and protecting the cerebellum and brain stem.

occipital condyle
Protrusion of the occipital bone where the atlas articulates.

occipital lobe
Cerebral lobe at the back of the brain, near the occipital bone, playing a role in vision (decoding visual information).

occipital muscle
Muscle connecting the occipital bone to the epicranial aponeurosis; it allows the scalp to be drawn back.

occipital pole
The most posterior part of each of the hemispheres of the brain.

occipitofrontal muscle
Muscle formed of two heads (occipital muscle and frontal muscle), allowing various movements of the scalp.

oculomotor nerve
Cranial nerve, essentially motor, responsible for the movement of the eye in the orbit, upper eyelid movements and the adjustment of the opening of the pupil to the amount of light.

olecranon
Upper extremity of the ulna, articulating with the humerus and forming the posterior protrusion of the elbow.

olfactory bulb
Nerve structure supported by the ethmoid bone, above the nasal cavity, collecting nerve signals transmitted by the olfactory nerve and relaying them to the olfactory cortex.

olfactory nerve
Sensory cranial nerve carrying olfactory nerve signals from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb.

olfactory tract
Bundle of nerve fibers arising from the olfactory bulb, constituting the extension of the fibers of the olfactory nerves.

olive
Core of gray matter located behind each pyramid, at the upper part of the medulla oblongata.

ophthalmic nerve
Terminal branch of the trigeminal nerve, whose twigs innervate especially the eyeball and nasal cavity, as well as the skin of the nose and forehead.

opposing muscle of little finger
Muscle connecting the second row of the carpus to the fifth metacarpal; it allows outward rotation of the little finger.

opposing muscle of thumb
Muscle connecting the trapezium bone and retinaculum of the flexor muscles to the first metacarpal; it allows the inner rotation of the thumb.

optic chiasm
Structure formed by the juncture of the optic nerves of the right and left eye, whose fibers partially intersect, above the hypophysis.

optic nerve
Sensory cranial nerve transmitting to the brain nerve signals arising from the photoreceptors of the retina.

optic tract
Bundle of nerve tissues arising from the optic chiasm, comprising the backward extension of the optic nerve fibers.

oral cavity
Anterior cavity of the digestive tract, serving as the entry point for food and ensuring its initial transformation before being directed to the esophagus.

orbicular muscle of eye
Ring-shaped muscle of the face surrounding the orbit and extending into the eyelids; it controls the movements of the eyelids and periphery of the eye.

orbicularis oris muscle
Ring-shaped muscle surrounding the mouth and allowing the lips to close, purse and pucker.

orbital part of orbicular muscle of eye
Part of the orbicular muscle of the eye surrounding the orbit.

orifice of vermiform appendix
Opening through which the vermiform appendix connects to the cecum.

oropharynx
Median part of the pharynx, communicating with the mouth.

ovary
Each of two female genital glands located on either side of the uterus, producing ova and sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone).

palatine bone
Unpaired bone forming the back of the hard palate.

palatine tonsil
Each of two lymphoid organs located behind the buccal cavity, on either side of the palatine uvula, protecting the airways by fighting bacteria.

palatine uvula
Mobile fleshy extension of the soft palate, contributing to closing the nasopahrynx during swallowing.

palatopharyngeal arch
Membranous fold connecting the base of the palatine uvula to the pharynx.

palm of hand
Inner side of the hand, corresponding to the metacarpus.

palmar aponeurosis
Thick triangular-shaped fibrous membrane covering the tendons of the flexor muscles of the fingers.

palmar branch of ulnar nerve
Branch of the ulnar nerve, innervating the skin of part of the palm, ring finger and little finger.

palmar carpal branch of ulnar artery
Branch of the ulnar artery, joining the corresponding branch of the radial artery to irrigate the joints of the carpus.

palmar digital veins
Veins of the fingers, ending at the superficial palmar venous arch.

palmar interosseous muscles
Muscles occupying the palmar part of the intermetacarpal spaces; they allow the fingers to bend and move toward each other.

palmar ligaments
Dense ligaments connecting various bones of the hand.

palpebral part of orbicular muscle of eye
Part of the orbicular muscle of the eye contained in the eyelids.

papillary muscles
Internal ventricular muscles limiting movement of the mitral or tricuspid valve and preventing it from being pushed back into the atrium during contraction of the ventricle.

parahippocampal gyrus
Convolution of the temporal lobe, bounded by the fourth collateral sulcus and formed by the hippocampal sulcus.

parietal bone
Paired bone making up the largest part of the roof of the skull.

parietal branch of superficial temporal artery
Terminal branch of the superficial temporal artery, irrigating the parietal part of the scalp.

parietal lobe
Cerebral lobe located in the middle part of the brain, involved in taste, touch, pain and language comprehension.

patella
Short paired bone, triangular in shape, articulating with the femur at the knee.

patellar ligament
Thick ligament extending from the patella to the tibial tuberosity; it assists in stabilizing the knee joint.

pectinate muscles
Prominent muscular ridges of the inner wall of the two auricles and right atrium of the heart.

pectineal muscle
Muscle connecting the pubis to the upper part of the femur; it assists the thigh to flex and move toward the axis of the body (adduction).

pectoral branches of thoracoacromial artery
Branches of the thoracoacromial artery, irrigating the pectoral muscles; in women, it also irrigates the mammary glands.

pelvic girdle
Region of the body joining the lower limbs to the trunk and corresponding to the pelvis.

pelvis
Bony girdle consisting of the sacrum, coccyx and two iliac bones, joining the bones of the lower limbs to the axial skeleton.

penis
Male genital organ located on the exterior of the body and having a urinary and sexual function.

perforating arteries
Branches of the deep femoral artery, irrigating the abductor and gluteus muscles.

perforating branch of fibular artery
Branch of the fibular artery, irrigating mainly the ankle; it crosses the interosseous membrane, hence its name.

perforating veins
Veins carrying blood from the lateral vastus and hamstring muscles to the deep femoral vein.

pericardium
Envelope of connective tissue, formed of several layers, surrounding the heart and protecting it.

perineal nerves
Branches of the pudental nerve, innervating the muscles and skin of the perineum.

peritoneum
Serous membrane consisting of two layers, lining the internal walls and covering the organs of the abdominal cavity and ensuring its maintenance.

phalanges of fingers
Long bones forming the skeleton of the fingers. Each finger has three phalanges, except the thumb, which has two.

phalanges of toes
Long bones forming the skeleton of the toes of the feet. Each toe has three phalanges, except for the big toe, which has two.

pharyngeal opening of auditory tube
Opening of the lower extremity of the auditory tube.

pharyngeal tonsil
Each of two lymphoid organs located in the oropharynx and filtering pathogens from the air.

pharynx
Channel located in the upper part of the throat, connecting the nasal cavity to the larynx, as well as the buccal cavity to the esophagus; it serves as a passageway for air and food.

phrenic nerve
Nerve originating from the fourth cervical rachidian pair, innervating the diaphragm.

phrenicocolic ligament
Fold of the peritonium, connecting the left colic angle to the diaphragm.

pineal gland
Endocrine gland located in the brain, secreting melatonin and influencing the formation of spermatozoa or the menstrual cycle.

pisiform bone
Bone of the upper row of the carpus; it is the smallest of the carpal bones.

pituitary gland
Endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, controlled by the hypothalamus, directly secreting six hormones, several of which regulate the activity of other endocrine glands.

plantar interosseous muscles
Muscles connecting the third, fourth and fifth metatarsals to the proximal phalanges of the third, fourth and fifth toes; they allow the toes to move toward the axis of the foot (adduction).

plantar muscle
Small muscle connecting the femur to the calcaneus; it assists in the plantar flexion of the foot.

platysma
Muscle covering the anterior side of the neck, allowing the skin to be drawn.

pons
Central part of the brain stem made of nerve fibers, connecting the spinal cord, cerebellum and brain.

popliteal artery
Extension of the femoral artery, irrigating the regions of the knee and upper calf.

popliteal lymph nodes
Nodes located in the region of the popliteal fossa, draining lymph from various regions of the knee, leg and foot.

popliteal vein
Vein formed by the union of the posterior and anterior tibial veins and extending via the femoral vein.

postcentral gyrus
Convolution of the parietal lobe bounded by the central and postcentral sulci.

posterior auricular muscle
Muscle connecting the mastoid process to the cartilage of the ear; it pulls the ear slightly up and back.

posterior belly of digastric muscle
Part of the digastric muscle connecting the temporal bone to the hyoid bone, enabling movement of the hyoid bone upward and forward, thereby moving the tongue.

posterior cerebral artery
Terminal branch of the basilar artery, irrigating the occipital lobe of the brain.

posterior circumflex humeral artery
Branch of the axillary artery, irrigating the shoulder joint, as well as the deltoid, triceps and small round muscles.

posterior circumflex humeral vein
Vein of the posterior part of the shoulder, emptying into the axillary vein.

posterior communicating artery
Artery connecting the internal and posterior cerebral carotid arteries.

posterior cord
Bundle of nerve fibers of the brachial plexus, giving rise to the subscapular, thoracodorsal, axillary and radial nerves.

posterior cruciate ligament
Ligament located inside the articular capsule of the knee and connecting the femur to the tibia; it restrains backward movement of the tibia.

posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm
Branch of the radial nerve, innervating the skin of the forearm.

posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
Branch of the sacral plexus, innervating the buttock and posterior part of the thigh.

posterior inferior iliac spine
Bony protrusion of the posterior part of the ilium, located beneath the posterior superior iliac spine.

posterior intercostal arteries
Branches of the thoracic cage, irrigating the intercostal vertebrae and spaces.

posterior intercostal veins
Veins running along the posterior part of the intercostal spaces.

posterior interosseous artery
Branch of the common interosseous artery, irrigating the posterior part of the forearm.

posterior interosseous nerve of forearm
Branch of the radial nerve, especially innervating the extensor muscles of the forearm.

posterior interosseous veins
Veins running across the posterior part of the forearm to the ulnar veins.

posterior interventricular artery
Branch of the right coronary artery, irrigating the posterior part of the ventricles and interventricular septum of the heart.

posterior perforated substance
Inferior and posterior part of the interpeduncular fossa, pierced with openings allowing the passage of several branches of the posterior cerebral artery.

posterior root of spinal nerve
Area where the sensory nerve fibers of a spinal nerve attach to the spinal cord.

posterior scalene muscle
Muscle connecting the transverse processes of certain cervical vertebrae (fourth to sixth) to the second rib; it especially allows the second rib to be lifted.

posterior superior iliac spine
Bony protrusion of the posterior part of the ilium.

posterior tibial artery
Terminal branch of the popliteal artery, running along the posterior compartment of the leg and irrigating the back of the leg and sole of the foot.

posterior tibial muscle
Muscle connecting the tibia and fibula to the bones of the tarsus and metatarsus; it especially allows extension (or plantar flexion) of the foot.

posterior tibial veins
Veins of the posterior side of the leg, joining with the anterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein.

posterior veins of left ventricle
Veins returning blood from the posterior part of the left ventricle to the coronary sinus.

preauricular lymph nodes
Nodes located in front of the ear.

precentral gyrus
Convolution of the frontal lobe bounded by the precentral and central sulci.

premolar
Each of eight teeth located between the canines and molars, having one or two roots and serving to grind food.

princeps pollicis artery
Branch of the radial artery, irrigating the thumb in back.

procerus muscle
Facial muscle connecting the nasal bone to the skin of the forehead; it allows the skin between the two eyebrows to be lowered.

pronator quadratus muscle
Muscle connecting the ulna to the radius, allowing inward rotation of the forearm (pronation).

proper palmar digital arteries
Branches of the common palmar digital arteries, numbering two per finger.

proper palmar digital nerves
Branches of the common palmar digital nerves, innervating the fingers.

prostate
Male gland located beneath the bladder; its secretions constitute about 30% of the sperm.

prostatic sinus
Enlarged part of the ureter at the prostate.

proximal phalanx of fourth toe
First phalanx of the fourth toe, connected to the fourth metatarsal.

proximal phalanx of great toe
First phalanx of the big toe, connected to the first metatarsal.

proximal phalanx of index finger
First phalanx of the index finger, connected to the second metacarpal.

proximal phalanx of little finger
First phalanx of the little finger, connected to the fifth metacarpal.

proximal phalanx of little toe
First phalanx of the little toe, connected to the fifth metatarsal.

proximal phalanx of middle finger
First phalanx of the middle finger, connected to the third metacarpal.

proximal phalanx of ring finger
First phalanx of the ring finger, connected to the fourth metacarpal.

proximal phalanx of second toe
First phalanx of the second toe, connected to the second metatarsal.

proximal phalanx of third toe
First phalanx of the third toe, connected to the third metatarsal.

proximal phalanx of thumb
First phalanx of the thumb, connected to the first metacarpal.

pubic hairs
Hairs covering the lower abdominal region beginning in puberty.

pubic symphysis
Cartilaginous joint connecting the two bones of the pubis.

pubic tubercle
Bony anterior superior protrusion of the pubis.

pubis
Anterior part of the iliac bone articulating at the pubic symphysis.

pudendal nerve
Nerve arising from the sacral plexus, innervating mainly the skin and muscles of the perineum.

pulmonary trunk
Blood vessel carrying deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the two pulmonary arteries.

pulmonary valve
Elastic structure preventing reverse flow of the blood of the pulmonary trunk to the right ventricle.

pupil
Circular opening located at the center of the iris through which light enters the eye.

pyloric canal
Narrow part of the pyloric antrum of the stomach, preceding the pylorus.

pyloric part of stomach
Lowest part of the stomach, formed by the pyloric antrum and the pylorus.

pyloric sphincter
Ring-like muscle surrounding the pylorus of the stomach; its constriction and release regulates the passage of food into the duodenum.

pylorus
Lower orifice of the stomach, connecting with the duodenum.

pyramid
Each of two masses of motor fibers located on either side of the median sulcus of the medulla oblongata.

quadrate lobe of liver
Part of the liver located between the fossa of the umbilical vein, gallbladder fossa and hilum.

quadriceps of thigh
Muscle having four heads (straight muscle of the thigh, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius) forming the anterior part of the thigh; it allows extension of the leg and flexion of the thigh.

radial artery
Terminal branch of the brachial artery, irrigating the anterior part of the forearm and carpus.

radial collateral artery
Branch of the deep artery of the arm, irrigating the brachial and brachioradial muscles.

radial flexor muscle of wrist
Muscle connecting the medial epicondyle of the humerus to the second metacarpal; it allows the hand to flex and move away from the axis of the body (abduction).

radial nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, especially innervating the extensor muscles of the upper limb and fingers.

radial recurrent artery
Branch of the radial artery, irrigating the elbow and laterally irrigating certain arm muscles; it follows an upward course.

radial veins
Veins receiving in part the blood of the hand and then assisting in forming the brachial veins.

radialis indicis artery
Branch of the main artery of the thumb, irrigating the index finger.

radius
Long paired bone forming, with the ulna, the skeleton of the forearm and articulating with several carpal bones.

ramus of mandible
Vertical part of the mandible, on either side of the body, articulating upward with the temporal bone.

rectum
Terminal segment of the large intestine, connecting with the outside by the anus and enabling defecation.

rectus sheath
Membrane covering the right muscle of the abdomen; its inner border assists in the formation of the linea alba.

recurrent interosseous artery
Branch of the posterior interosseous artery, irrigating the back of the elbow.

renal artery
Branch of the abdominal aorta, carrying blood to the kidney.

renal column
Extension of the renal cortex between two renal pyramids.

renal cortex
External part of the kidney containing the glomeruli.

renal impression of spleen
Part of the spleen in contact with the left kidney.

renal medulla
Middle part of the kidney, made up of renal pyramids.

renal pelvis
Funnel-shaped cavity formed by the union of calices and ending in the ureter.

renal veins
Veins carrying blood from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava.

retromandibular vein
Vein arising from the union of the maxillary and superficial temporal veins; it runs through the region of the parotid gland and joins with the posterior auricular vein to form the external jugular vein.

right atrium
Cavity of the heart, receiving deoxygenated blood from the venae cavae.

right colic flexure
Curvature formed by the colon between its ascending and transverse portions.

right coronary artery
Artery originating in the aorta and irrigating the right side of the myocardium.

right crus of diaphragm
Musculotendinous band securing the diaphragm to the vertebral column; it inserts into the first three lombar vertebrae, to the right of the aorta.

right inferior lobar bronchus
Twig of the main right bronchus, leading to the inferior lobe of the right lung.

right inferior pulmonary vein
Vein returning blood oxygenated in the inferior part of the right lung to the left atrium of the heart.

right lobe of liver
Main part of the liver, located to the right of the falciform ligament.

right lumbar lymph nodes
Abdominal nodes grouped near the inferior vena cava.

right lung
Respiratory organ divided into three lobes, in which blood from the right pulmonary artery is freed of carbon dioxide and enriched with oxygen.

right lymphatic duct
Vessel carrying lymph from the upper right section of the body to the terminal point of the right subclavian vein.

right main bronchus
Bronchus emanating from the trachea, allowing air to enter and exit the right lung.

right pulmonary artery
Branch of the pulmonary trunk, carrying deoxygenated blood to the right lung.

right semilunar cusp of the pulmonary valve
One of three components of the pulmonary valve, assisting in closing the orifice during ventricular systole.

right superior lobar bronchus
Twig of the main right brochus, leading to the superior lobe of the right lung.

right superior pulmonary vein
Vein returning blood oxygenated in the superior part of the right lung to the left atrium of the heart.

right suprarenal vein
Vein carrying blood from the right surrenal gland to the lower vena cava.

right testicular vein
In men, vein carrying blood from the right testicle to the inferior vena cava.

right triangular ligament of liver
Fold of the peritonium, connecting the right lobe of the liver to the diaphragm; it forms the right extremity of the coronary ligament.

right ventricle
Thin-walled cavity of the heart, propelling blood into the pulmonary trunk.

ring finger
Fourth digit of the hand; rings are traditionally worn on this finger, hence its name.

risorius muscle
Variable muscle extending from the fascia of the masseter muscle to the angle of the mouth; it especially allows smiling.

round ligament of liver
Remnant of the umbilical vein, extending from the navel to the hilum of the liver.

round pronator muscle
Muscle formed of two heads, connecting the humerus and ulna to the radius; it allows flexion and inward rotation (pronation) of the forearm.

sacral ganglia
Sympathetic ganglia located on the anterior side of the sacrum.

sacral lymph nodes
Nodes filtering lymph from the upper part of the rectum and posterior wall of the pelvis.

sacral nerves and coccygeal nerve
Group formed by all four pairs of spinal nerves arising from the sacrum and innervating the pelvis and lower limbs, and by the pair of spinal nerves arising from the coccyx.

sacrum
Triangular bone resulting from the fusion of five sacral vertebrae.

saphenous branch of descending genicular artery
Branch of the descending artery of the knee, irrigating the upper part of the leg.

saphenous nerve
Branch of the femoral nerve, innervating the inner side of the leg and knee.

sartorius muscle
Muscle connecting the iliac bone to the tibia and allowing flexion and rotation of the leg.

scaphoid bone
The largest bone of the upper row of the carpus, articulating with the radius at the wrist.

scapula
Triangular-shaped paired bone, slender and flat, located behind the thoracic cage, articulating with the clavicle and humerus; it protects the thorax and serves as the insertion point for several muscles of the back.

sciatic nerve
The largest nerve in the body, arising from the sacral plexus, innervating a large portion of the lower limb.

scrotum
Thick envelope of skin, supporting and protecting the testes.

second lumbar vertebra
Vertebra located between the first and third lombar vertebrae.

second metacarpal
Bone of the metacarpus, articulating with the trapezoid bone and the proximal phalange of the index finger.

second metatarsal
Bone of the metatarsus, articulating with the intermediate cuneiform bone and proximal phalanx of the second toe.

second rib
Second true rib.

second sacral vertebra
Vertebra fused to the sacrum, located between the first and third sacral vertebrae.

second thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the first and third thoracic vertebrae.

semimembranous muscle
Muscle connecting the ischial tuberosity to the tibia; it allows flexion and inward rotation of the leg, and extension of the thigh.

seminal vesicle
Each of two membranous sacs located above the prostate, storing sperm between ejaculations.

semispinalis muscle
Muscle composed of three segments (semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis and semispinalis dorsi) connecting the vertebrae to the occipital bone.

semitendinous muscle
Muscle connecting the ischial tuberosity to the tibia; it allows flexion and inward rotation of the leg, and extension of the thigh.

septomarginal trabecula
Trabecula of the right ventricle connecting the anterior papillary muscle to the interventricular septum.

septum pellucidum
Thin membrane separating the lateral ventricles of the brain.

serous coat
Membrane comprised of two layers, covering various organs or lining certain cavities.

serratus anterior muscle
Muscle connecting the first 10 ribs to the medial border of the scapula; it especially allows lateral rotation of the scapula, thereby assisting in the abduction of the arm.

sesamoid bones of hand
Rounded bones of varying number, located in the palmar surface of certain joints of the hand.

seventh rib
Last true rib, which is also the largest.

seventh thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the sixth and eighth thoracic vertebrae.

short abductor muscle of thumb
Superficial muscle connecting the trapezium bone to the proximal phalanx of the thumb; it mainly allows the thumb to move away from the axis of the hand (abduction).

short adductor muscle
Muscle connecting the pubis to the femur, allowing the thigh to move toward the axis of the body (adduction).

short extensor muscle of great toe
Muscular bundle connecting the calcaneus to the proximal phalanx of the big toe, allowing it to extend.

short extensor muscle of thumb
Muscle connecting the radius to the proximal phalanx of the thumb; it allows the thumb to extend and to move away from the axis of the hand (abduction).

short extensor muscle of toes
Muscle connecting the calcaneus to the first four toes, allowing them to extend.

short fibular muscle
Muscle connecting the fibula to the fifth metatarsal; it acts as the foot’s dorsal flexor and outward rotator.

short flexor muscle of little finger
Muscle connecting the hamate bone to the proximal phalanx of the little finger, allowing it to flex.

short flexor muscle of thumb
Muscle connecting the trapezium bone and retinaculum of the flexor muscles to the proximal phalanx of the thumb, allowing it to flex.

short head of biceps of arm
Part of the brachial biceps inserting into the roof of the coracoid process of the scapula.

short head of biceps of thigh
Part of the femoral biceps inserting on the linea aspera of the femur.

short palmar muscle
Muscle connecting the palmar aponeurosis to the skin of the medial border of the hand; it allows the skin of the hypothenar to fold.

short radial extensor muscle of wrist
Muscle connecting the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the third metacarpal; it allows the hand to fold backward (extension).

shoulder girdle
Joint connecting the arm to the thorax.

sigmoid colon
Terminal segment of the colon, carrying waste matter toward the rectum.

sigmoid sinus
Extension of the transverse sinus, leading to the internal jugular vein.

sixth cervical vertebra
Vertebra located between the fifth vertebra and the vertebra prominens (seventh cervical vertebra).

sixth rib
Sixth true rib.

sixth thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the fifth and seventh thoracic vertebrae.

skin
Flexible resistant organ covering the entire body, consisting of three main layers: the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis.

small cardiac vein
Vein draining blood from the right side of the heart.

small intestine
Channel of the digestive tract joining the stomach to the large intestine, divided into three parts (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), where the largest part of digestion and food absorption takes place.

small saphenous vein
Vein arising in the lateral part of the foot and joining the popliteal vein at the knee.

smaller psoas muscle
Variable muscle connecting the last thoracic vertebra and first lombar vertebra to the iliac bone; it assists in the flexion of the trunk.

soft palate
Muscular membranous wall separating the nasopharynx and buccal cavity; it especially assists in ingestion of food and vocalization.

soleus muscle
Deep thick muscle of the triceps surae connecting the tibia and fibula to the calcaneus; it allows extension of the foot, making it an important muscle for walking and running.

sphenoid bone
Unpaired bone located behind the orbits and taking up the entire width of the skull.

spinal cord
Part of the central nervous system located in the vertebral canal, inside the vertebral column; it transmits nerve information from the spinal nerves to the brain and back, and triggers reflexes.

spinal nerves
All of the 31 pairs of mixed nerves (sensory and motor) emerging from the spinal cord and innervating all parts of the body, except the face.

spleen
Lymphoid organ located between the stomach and pancreas; site of the production of white blood cells and antibodies, it is also a place where blood is stored and filtered.

splenic artery
Branch of the celiac trunk, irrigating the spleen and partly the stomach.

splenius muscle of head
Muscle connecting certain cervical and thoracic vertebrae to the mastoid process of the temporal bone; it especially allows extension of the neck and rotation of the head.

sternocleidomastoid muscle
Powerful muscle formed of two heads, connecting the mastoid process of the temporal bone to the manubrium and clavicle; it allows flexion, lateral inclination and rotation of the head.

sternohyoid muscle
Long, slender muscle connecting the manubrium to the hyoid bone, allowing it to be lowered after swallowing.

sternothyroid muscle
Muscle connecting the manubrium to the thyroid cartilage, allowing the larynx to be lowered.

sternum
Flat bone, vertically extended, forming the anterior midsection of the thoracic cage and articulating with the costal cartilages.

stomach
Organ of the digestive tract forming an extensible sac between the esophagus and small intestine; it transforms food from the esophagus into chyme, a thick fluid.

straight muscle of thigh
Central part of the quadriceps, connecting the anterior inferior iliac spine and acetabulum to the patella and tibia; it allows extension of the knee and flexion of the thigh.

straight sinus
Vessel formed by the union of the great cerebral vein and the lower sagittal sinus; it ends at the confluence of the sinuses.

stylohyoid muscle
Muscle connecting the styloid process of the temporal bone to the hyoid bone, allowing it to be lifted.

styloid process of radius
Bony protrusion forming the lower extremity of the radius and serving to attach the external ligament of the wrist.

styloid process of temporal bone
Bony protrusion of the temporal bone, long and slender, serving to attach ligaments and muscles of the pharynx.

styloid process of ulna
Bony protrusion of the lower extremity of the ulna, serving to attach an internal ligament of the wrist.

subacromial bursa
Serous sac located between the humerus and deltoid muscle.

subclavian artery
Main artery of the upper limb, passing beneath the clavicle and extending via the axillary artery; it also irrigates the lower part of the neck.

subclavian vein
Extension of the axillary vein, collecting blood from the arm and part of the neck; it joins the internal jugular vein to form the branchiocephalic vein.

subcostal artery
Collateral branch of the thoracic aorta, irrigating the area located beneath the twelfth rib.

subcostal muscles
Muscles of the thoracic cage, connecting the ribs to each other; they assist the movements of the thoracic cage during breathing.

subcostal nerve
Branch of the twelfth intercostal nerve, especially innervating part of the abdominal muscles.

subcostal vein
Vein draining blood from the region located beneath the twelfth rib; it joins the ascending lombar vein to form the azygos vein on the right side and the hemiazygos vein on the left side.

subcutaneous bursa of lateral malleolus
Variable serous sac located between the lateral malleolus and skin.

subcutaneous fat
Layer of adipose tissue located beneath the dermis of the skin, ensuring the body’s thermal insulation and storing energy; its distribution differs depending on the sex.

subcutaneous infrapatellar bursa
Serous sac located between the rotulian ligament and skin.

subcutaneous prepatellar bursa
Serous sac located in front of the patella.

subcutaneous trochanteric bursa
Serous sac located between the greater trochanter of the femur and skin.

subdeltoid bursa
Serous sac located between the deltoid muscle and shoulder joint.

submandibular lymph nodes
Nodes grouped near the submandibular gland, filtering lymph from part of the face and tongue.

subscapular artery
Branch of the axillary artery, irrigating the regions of the shoulder and scapula.

subscapular muscle
Muscle connecting the anterior face of the scapula to the lesser tubercle; it allows the inward rotation of the arm.

subscapular nerves
Nerves arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the subscapular and teres major muscles.

superficial branch of radial nerve
Branch of the radial nerve, innervating the skin of part of the back of the hand, as well as the first four fingers.

superficial cervical artery
Branch of the traverse cervical artery, irrigating the trapezius, splenius and elevator muscles of the scapula.

superficial circumflex iliac artery
Branch of the femoral artery, irrigating the groin region and part of the abdomen.

superficial circumflex iliac vein
Vein returning blood from the inguinal region to the great saphenous vein.

superficial epigastric vein
Vein carrying blood from part of the abdominal region to the great saphenous vein.

superficial fibular nerve
Branch of the common fibular nerve, especially innervating the external part of the leg and back of the foot.

superficial flexor muscle of fingers
Muscle having two heads connecting the medial epicondyle of the humerus, the coronoid process of the ulna and the radius to the medial phalanges of the fingers; it mainly allows flexion of the last four fingers.

superficial lymphatic vessel
Lymphatic vessel located in the subcutaneous tissues.

superficial middle cerebral vein
Vein running along the lateral surface of the brain and ending in the carvernous sinus.

superficial palmar arch
Artery of the palm of the hand, formed by the union of the ulnar artery and a branch of the radial artery; it gives rise to the common palmar digital arteries.

superficial palmar branch of radial artery
Branch of the radial artery, irrigating the thenar eminence.

superficial palmar venous arch
Vessel receiving the veins of the palmar face of the hand and fingers; the blood collected then passes into the radial and ulnar veins.

superficial parotid lymph nodes
Nodes located on the superficial surface of the parotid gland.

superficial temporal artery
Branch of the external carotid artery, irrigating mainly the temporal region.

superficial temporal veins
Veins collecting the blood of the temporal zone and then joining with the maxillary vein to form the retromandibular vein.

superficial transverse metacarpal ligament
Ligament located at the base of the palmar aponeurosis.

superficial vein
Veins located in the subcutaneous tissues, emptying into a deep vein; they are not generally accompanied by an artery.

superficial veins of lower limb
Superficial veins draining blood from the lower limbs; they especially include the great and small saphenous veins.

superficial veins of upper limb
Superficial veins, draining blood from the upper limbs; they especially include the cephalic, basilic and median veins of the forearm.

superior angle of scapula
Internal angle formed by the juncture of the superior and medial borders of the scapula.

superior auricular muscle
Muscle connecting the epicranial aponeurosis to the cartilage of the ear; it pulls the ear slightly upward.

superior cerebellar artery
Branch of the basilar artery, irrigating the superior face of the cerebellum.

superior cerebellar peduncle
Cerebellar peduncle connecting the cerebellum to the cerebral peduncle.

superior cerebral veins
Veins collecting blood from the superior, lateral and medial surfaces of the brain, and emptying into the superior sagittal sinus.

superior cervical ganglion
Sympathetic nodes located beneath the base of the skull, between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein.

superior colliculus
Each of two elevations located on the dorsal side of the midbrain, above; they are part of the visual pathways.

superior costal facet
Smooth surface located in the upper part of the vertebral body and articulating with the head of a rib.

superior epigastric artery
Terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery, irrigating mainly the abdominal muscles.

superior epigastric veins
Veins carrying blood from the abdominal muscles to the internal thoracic veins.

superior extensor retinaculum
Ligament located above the ankle, anchoring the muscle tendons during dorsal movements of the foot.

superior fibular retinaculum
Ligament extending from the lateral malleolus to the calcaneus, anchoring the long and short fibular muscles to the outer side of the foot.

superior gluteal artery
Branch of the internal iliac artery, irrigating the buttock.

superior gluteal nerve
Nerve arising from the sacral plexus, innervating the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles.

superior gluteal veins
Veins draining blood from the muscles of the buttocks and emptying it into the internal iliac vein.

superior labial artery
Branch of the facial artery, irrigating the upper lip and nose.

superior labial vein
Vein carrying blood from the region of the upper lip to the facial vein.

superior lobe
Upper part of the lung separated from the inferior lobe by an oblique fissure and, in the right lung, from the middle lobe by a horizontal fissure.

superior mesenteric artery
Anterior branch of the abdominal aorta, irrigating a large portion of the intestine (small intestine, right colon).

superior nasal concha
Paired bone, fine and curved, located in the upper part of the nasal cavity and contributing to smell when inhaled air comes into contact with its mucous membrane.

superior sagittal sinus
Vein having a fibrous bony wall, running along the top of the skull from front to back on the median line, up to the confluence of the sinuses; it receives the upper cerebral veins.

superior thyroid artery
Branch of the external carotid artery, irrigating the thyroid gland, above.

superior thyroid vein
Vein receiving blood from the superior part of the thyroid gland and emptying into the internal jugular vein.

superior trunk of brachial plexus
Part of the brachial plexus formed by the fifth and sixth cervical nerves.

superior ulnar collateral artery
Branch of the brachial artery, irrigating the triceps muscle and the elbow region.

superior vena cava
Vein draining blood from the regions of the body located above the diaphragm toward the right atrium.

superolateral superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Nodes located laterally to the great saphenous vein, filtering lymph from the superficial regions of the buttocks and abdomen.

superomedial superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Nodes located medially to the saphenous vein, filtering lymph from the perineum and external genitalia.

supinator muscle
Muscle connecting the humerus, ulna and elbow to the radius; it allows outward rotation of the forearm (supination).

supraclavicular nerves
Nerves arising from the cervical plexus, innervating the shoulder and upper part of the thorax.

supraorbital artery
Branch of the ophthalmic artery, irrigating the frontal muscle and scalp, in front.

supraorbital nerve
Branch of the frontal nerve, especially innervating the forehead and upper eyelid.

supraorbital notch/foramen
Depression or aperture of the frontal bone, allowing the passage of various nerves and blood vessels.

suprarenal gland
Endocrine gland located above the kidney; some of the hormones it secretes are involved in the stress response, while others act on water retention.

suprascapular artery
Branch of the thyrocervical trunk, irrigating the regions surrounding the clavicle and scapula.

suprascapular nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, especially innervating the supraspinous and infraspinous muscles.

suprascapular notch
Notch in the upper border of the scapula, allowing the passage of the suprascapular nerve.

suprascapular vein
Vein carrying blood from the region of the scapula to the axillary vein.

supraspinous muscle
Muscle connecting the posterior side of the scapula to the greater tubercle; it assists in abduction of the arm.

supreme intercostal artery
Branch of the costocervical trunk, irrigating the upper part of the thoracic cage.

supreme intercostal vein
Vein carrying blood from the region of the first intercostal space to the vertebral or brachiocephalic vein.

suspensory ligaments of breast
Ligaments connecting the mammary tissues to the skin, mainly supporting the breast.

sympathetic trunk
All the interconnected autonomic ganglia, forming a vertical chain on each side of the vertebral column.

synovial sheaths of fingers
Membranes surrounding the tendons of the fingers.

synovial sheaths of toes
Synovial membranes covering the flexor tendons of the toes.

taeniae coli
Longitudinal bands of smooth muscle covering the large intestine along its entire length.

talus
Bone of the tarsus resting on the calcaneus and articulating with the tibia and fibula.

tarsus
All seven short bones (tarsals) forming the skeleton of the ankle.

teeth
Whitish, hard organs, borne by the maxilla and mandible and serving to chew food.

temple
Side of the head between the forehead, eye, cheek and ear.

temporal bone
Paired bone located in the lateral part of the skull, articulating with the mandible and having several bony protrusions.

temporal branches of facial nerve
Terminal branches of the facial nerve, innervating the auricular muscles.

temporal lobe
Cerebral lobe in the lateral part of the cerebral hemispheres, responsible for hearing, memory and behavior control.

temporal muscle
Muscle connecting the temporal fossa to the mandible; it allows the jaws to close by lifting the mandible.

temporal pole
Prominent rounded part of the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe.

temporomandibular joint
Synovial joint connecting the head of the mandible to the temporal bone; it allows the mouth to open and close.

tendinous cords
Small tendons connecting the free border of the tricuspid and mitral valves of the heart to the papillary muscles.

tendinous sheath of anterior tibial muscle
Synovial membrane covering the tendon of the anterior tibial muscle, between the superior retinaculum of the extensor muscles up to the talonavicular joint (between the talus and navicular bone).

tendinous sheath of common extensor of fingers and extensor of index muscles
Membrane covering the tendon of the common extensor of fingers and extensor of index muscles.

tendinous sheath of long abductor and short extensor muscles of thumb
Membrane covering the tendon of the long abductor and short extensor muscles of the thumb.

tendinous sheath of long extensor muscle of great toe
Serous membrane covering the long extensor muscle of the big toe, extending from the frondiform ligament to the dorsal fascia of the foot.

tendinous sheath of long extensor muscle of thumb
Membrane covering the tendon of the long extensor muscle of the thumb.

tendinous sheath of long extensor muscle of toes
Membrane covering the tendon of the long extensor muscle of the toes, between the superior retinaculum of the extensors and intermediate cuneiform bone.

tendinous sheath of long flexor muscle of thumb
Membrane covering the tendon of the long flexor muscle of the thumb, at the wrist and palm of the hand.

tendinous sheath of long flexor muscle of toes
Synovial membrane covering the long flexor tendon of the toes, between the medial malleolus and navicular bone.

tendinous sheath of posterior tibial muscle
Synovial membrane covering the tendon of the posterior tibial muscle, behind the medial malleolus and foot.

tendinous sheath of radial extensor muscles of wrist
Membrane covering the tendon of the short and long radial extensor muscles of the carpus.

tendinous sheath of short extensor muscle of little finger
Membrane covering the tendon of the short extensor muscle of the little finger.

tendinous sheath of ulnar extensor muscle of wrist
Membrane covering the tendon of the ulnar extensor muscle of the carpus.

tensor muscle of fascia lata
Muscle connecting the iliac crest to the anterior border of the fascia lata; it especially assists in the flexion and inner rotation of the thigh.

tenth rib
Third false rib.

tenth thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the ninth and eleventh thoracic vertebrae.

teres major muscle
Muscle connecting the scapula to the humerus; it allows the arm to rotate inward and move toward the axis of the body (adduction).

teres minor muscle
Muscle connecting the scapula to the humerus; it stabilizes the shoulder joint and allows the outer rotation of the arm.

terminal filum
Fibrous extension of the pia mater, extending from the extremity of the spinal cord to the coccyx.

testicle
Each of two male sex glands located in the scrotum, producing spermatozoa and secreting male hormones (testosterone).

testicular artery
Branch of the abdominal aorta, irrigating the testicle.

thalamus
All the many formations of gray matter located at the center of the brain.

thigh
Part of the lower limb between the hip and knee, corresponding to the femur.

third cervical vertebra
Vertebra located between the axis and the fourth cervical vertebra.

third fibular muscle
Muscle connecting the fibula to the fifth metatarsal; it allows forward flexion and outward rotation of the foot.

third lumbar vertebra
Vertebra located between the second and fourth lombar vertebrae.

third metacarpal
Bone of the metacarpus, articulating with the capitate bone and the proximal phalange of the middle finger.

third metatarsal
Bone of the metatarsus, articulating with the lateral cuneiform bone and proximal phalanx of the third toe.

third occipital nerve
Twig of the third cervical nerve, innervating the upper part of the scalp.

third rib
Third true rib.

third sacral vertebra
Vertebra fused to the sacrum, located between the second and fourth sacral vertebrae.

third thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the second and fourth thoracic vertebrae.

thoracic aorta
Third section of the aorta, located in the thoracic cage.

thoracic cage
Bony structure consisting of 12 pairs of ribs, 12 thoracic vertebrae and the sternum.

thoracic duct
Vessel arising from the cisterna chyli and carrying lymph from most of the body to the terminal point of the left subclavian vein.

thoracic ganglia
Sympathetic ganglia forming two vertical chains on the anterior side of the vertebral column at the thorax.

thoracic nerves
All 12 pairs of spinal nerves, innervating the thorax and back and whose ventral branches are intercostal nerves.

thoracic vertebrae
Vertebrae (12) supporting the ribs at the thorax.

thoracoacromial artery
Branch of the axillary artery, irrigating the skin and shoulder muscles on the anterior superior part of the thorax.

thoracoacromial vein
Vein running along the shoulder and upper part of the thorax to the axillary vein.

thoracodorsal artery
Branch of the subscapular artery, irrigating the subscapular and round muscles.

thoracodorsal nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the latissimus dorsi muscle.

thoracoepigastric veins
Veins of the torso, emptying into the lateral thoracic vein.

thoracolumbar fascia
Fascia covering the deep muscles of the back.

thorax
Upper part of the trunk, above the diaphragm, especially containing the heart and lungs.

thumb
First digit of the hand, short and strong, made up of two mobile phalanges and opposable to the other digits to enable grasping.

thyrocervical trunk
Artery arising from the subclavian artery and diving into four branches: inferior thyroid artery, suprascapular artery, transverse cervical artery and ascending cervical artery.

thyroepiglottic ligament
Ligament connecting the epiglottis to the thyroid cartilage.

thyrohyoid membrane
Membrane connecting the thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone.

thyroid cartilage
Connective tissue composed of two lateral laminae whose juncture, on the anterior part of the larynx, forms a very visible protrusion in man (Adam’s apple).

tibia
Long, very large paired bone, articulating with the femur and talus and forming, with the fibula, the skeleton of the leg.

tibial collateral ligament
Ligament extending from the femur to the tibia, on the medial side of the knee, assisting in stabilizing the joint.

tibial nerve
Branch of the sciatic nerve, innervating the posterior muscles of the leg and the sole of the foot.

tibial tuberosity
Bony protrusion of the tibia, on which the rotulian tendon inserts.

toes
Extensions of the foot, made up of several articulated bones (phalanges), whose terminal end is covered with a nail.

tongue
Mobile fleshy organ located in the mouth and involved in tasting, chewing and talking.

trabeculae carneae of left ventricle
Muscular bands of the wall of the left ventricle of the heart.

trabeculae carneae of right ventricle
Muscular bands of the wall of the right ventricle of the heart.

trachea
Muscular cartilagenous channel allowing the passage of air between the larynx and bronchi.

tracheal bifurcation
Area of the trachea dividing into the main right and left bronchi.

tracheal cartilages
Cartilaginous rings (16 to 20) contained in the wall of the trachea, allowing it to remain open.

tragus
Flat triangular eminence located in front of the opening of the external auditory meatus.

transverse abdominal muscle
Muscle covering the lateral part of the abdomen, especially connecting the last costal cartilages and the iliac crest to the linea alba; it compresses the viscera of the abdomen.

transverse arytenoid muscle
Muscle of the larynx, connecting the arytenoid cartilages and allowing the glottis to close.

transverse branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery
Branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, especially irrigating the lateral vastus muscle.

transverse cervical artery
Branch of the thyrocervical trunk, irrigating the clavicle, scapula and upper shoulder muscles.

transverse cervical nerve
Nerve arising from the cervical plexus, innervating the lateral and anterior parts of the neck.

transverse colon
Horizontal segment of the colon between the ascending colon and descending colon.

transverse ligament of knee
Ligament connecting the lateral and medial menisci.

transverse sinus
Vessel arising from the confluence of the sinuses and extended via the sigmoid sinus.

trapezium bone
Bone of the lower row of the carpus, articulating with the first metacarpal.

trapezius muscle
Triangular muscle connecting the occipital bone and certain cervical and thoracic vertebrae to the clavicle, acromion and spine of the scapula; it allows numerous movements of the shoulder and assists in extension of the head.

trapezoid bone
Bone of the lower row of the carpus, articulating with the second metacarpal.

triceps of arm
Muscle having three heads, forming the posterior side of the arm and allowing extension of the forearm and elbow.

tricuspid valve