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ALPHABETICAL INDEX
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
LINKS TO THE VIRTUAL HUMAN BODY
major renal calices
Excretory channels formed by the union of several minor renal calices and coming together to form the renal pelvis.

male external genital organs
Sex organs specific to men, located on the exterior of the body and ensuring reproduction; they consist of the penis and testicles.

male urethra
Channel originating at the base of the bladder, crossing the prostate and running along the penis to the external urethral meatus; it allows both urination and ejaculation.

mammillary body
Each of two masses of gray matter protruding on the inferior side of the space between the cerebral peduncles, beneath the hypothalamus.

mandible
Unpaired bone forming the lower jaw and articulating with the temporal bones.

mandibular foramen
Aperture of the posterior part of the mandible, allowing the passage of the nerves and blood vessels of the face.

mandibular lymph node
Each of the nodes located near the inferior border of the mandible, draining lymph from the superficial tissues of the head and neck.

mandibular nerve
Terminal branch of the trigeminal nerve, whose twigs especially innervate the masticating muscles and lower half of the skin of the face, mouth and teeth.

manubrium
Upper part of the sternum, articulating with the two first costal cartilages and the clavicles.

marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve
Branch of the facial nerve, innervating the risorius muscle, as well as several muscles of the chin region.

masseter muscle
Powerful muscle connecting the mandible to the upper jaw and serving to chew.

mastoid process
Bony protrusion of the temporal bone, containing two air-filled cavities adjacent to the middle ear.

maxilla
Paired bone forming the upper jaw, part of the hard palate, orbits and nasal cavity.

maxillary artery
Branch of the external carotid artery, whose multiple twigs irrigate various regions of the head (jaws, teeth, muscles of mastication, ears, nose, palate, meninges).

maxillary nerve
Terminal branch of the trigeminal nerve, whose twigs especially innervate part of the skin of the face, inside part of the nasal cavity and upper teeth.

maxillary veins
Veins arising from the pterygoid plexus vein, joining with the superficial temporal vein at the parotid gland to form the retromandibular vein.

medial arcuate ligament
Ligament connecting the body and transverse process of the first lombar vertebra; it especially serves as a point of insertion for part of the muscle fibers of the diaphragm.

medial circumflex femoral artery
Branch of the deep artery of the thigh, irrigating the hip and thigh muscles.

medial circumflex femoral veins
Veins of the thigh, emptying generally into the femoral vein.

medial collateral artery
Branch of the deep artery of the arm, irrigating mainly the elbow region.

medial condyle of femur
Rounded protrusion of the internal part of the lower extremity of the femur, allowing articulation with the tibia.

medial condyle of tibia
Rounded protrusion of the upper extremity of the tibia, where the internal laternal ligament inserts.

medial cord
Bundle of nerve fibers of the brachial plexus, giving rise especially to the medial pectoral nerves, medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm, ulnar nerves and half the median nerve.

medial cuneiform
Bone of the tarsus, articulating with the navicular bone and first metatarsal.

medial cutaneous nerve of arm
Nerve tissue of the brachial plexus, innervating the skin of the inner arm.

medial cutaneous nerve of forearm
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the skin of the forearm.

medial epicondyle
Inner protrusion of the lower extremity of the humerus, serving to attach various flexor muscles of the hand and fingers.

medial frontobasal artery
Branch of the anterior cerebral artery, irrigating part of the frontal lobe.

medial head of gastrocnemius muscle
Part of the gastrocnemius muscle inserting on the medial condyle of the femur.

medial head of triceps of arm
Part of the brachial triceps inserting into the posterior side of the humerus, on the inner side.

medial inferior genicular artery
Branch of the popliteal artery, irrigating the knee region, below and inside.

medial intermuscular septum of arm
Membrane of fibrous tissue extending from the medial border of the humerus to the fascia of the arm.

medial lamina of pterygoid process
Internal part of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone.

medial malleolus
Bony protrusion of the inner ankle, formed by the lower epiphysis of the tibia.

medial meniscus
Semilunar fibrocartilaginous structure located on the inner side of the knee and assisting in its articulation.

medial palpebral ligament
Ligament connecting the medial extremity of the palpebral tarsus to the maxilla.

medial pectoral nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating partly the pectoral muscles.

medial plantar artery
Terminal branch of the posterior tibial artery, irrigating the middle part of the sole of the foot.

medial superior genicular artery
Branch of the popliteal artery, irrigating mainly the knee region, inside and above.

medial tarsal arteries
Branches of the dorsal artery of the foot, irrigating the inner side of the foot.

median antebrachial vein
Vein running along the forearm to the elbow, where it joins the basilic or cephalic vein.

median nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the various muscles of the anterior part of the forearm and part of the hand.

median sacral artery
Terminal branch of the abdominal aorta, irrigating the sacrum, coccyx and, alternatively, the rectum.

median sacral vein
Vein carrying blood from the anterior sides of the coccyx and sacrum to the left common iliac vein.

median umbilical ligament
Fibrous cord, a remnant of the urachus, extending from the navel to the bladder.

medullary cone
Lower extremity of the spinal cord.

mental foramen
Aperture of the mandible, below the second premolar, allowing the passage of nerves and blood vessels from the lower part of the face.

mental nerve
Branch of the inferior alveolar nerve, innervating the chin and lower lip.

mentalis muscle
Small muscle of the chin, allowing the lower lip to be raised and pushed out.

metacarpus
All five long bones (metacarpals) forming the skeleton of the palm of the hand.

metatarsals
Long bones of the foot forming the metatarsus.

metatarsus
All five long bones (metatarsals) forming the skeleton of the foot.

midbrain
Upper part of the brain stem.

middle cardiac vein
Vein arising near the apex of the heart and emptying into the coronary sinus.

middle cerebral artery
Branch of the internal carotid artery, irrigating the lateral part of the brain.

middle cervical ganglion
Ganglion of the neck, whose twigs especially lead to the thyroid gland and heart; it is absent in some individuals.

middle cuneiform
Bone of the tarsus, articulating with the navicular bone and second metatarsal.

middle finger
Third and longest digit of the hand.

middle genicular artery
Branch of the popliteal artery, especially irrigating the cruciate ligaments of the knee.

middle gluteal muscle
Large thick muscle connecting the ilium to the greater trochanter; it especially allows the thigh to move away from the axis of the body (abduction).

middle lobe
Part of the right lung separated from the superior lobe by a horizontal fissure and from the inferior lobe by an oblique fissure.

middle nasal concha
Paired bone, fine and curved, located in the middle of the nasal cavity.

middle phalanx of fourth toe
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the fourth toe.

middle phalanx of index finger
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the index finger.

middle phalanx of little finger
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the little finger.

middle phalanx of little toe
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the little toe.

middle phalanx of middle finger
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the middle finger.

middle phalanx of ring finger
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the ring finger.

middle phalanx of second toe
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the second toe.

middle phalanx of third toe
Phalanx located between the proximal and distal phalanges of the third toe.

middle scalene muscle
Muscle connecting the transverse processes of certain cervical vertebrae (second to sixth) to the first rib; it especially allows the first rib to be lifted.

middle thyroid veins
Veins receiving blood from the thyroid gland and emptying into the internal jugular vein.

middle trunk of brachial plexus
Part of the brachial plexus formed by the seventh cervical nerve.

minor renal calices
Small excretory channels carrying the urine from the renal papillae to the major renal calices.

mitral valve
Elastic structure preventing reverse flow of the blood of the left ventricle to the left atrium.

molar
Each of 12 large teeth located at the back of the maxilla and mandible, having two or three roots and serving to grind food.

mouth
Initial part of the digestive tube made up of a cavity (oral cavity) surrounded by lips; it allows the ingestion of food and plays a role in tasting, speaking and breathing.

musculocutaneous nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the anterior muscles of the arm and skin of the forearm.

musculophrenic artery
Terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery, especially irrigating the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

musculophrenic veins
Veins collecting blood from certain parts of the diaphragm, thorax and abdomen; they then empty into the internal thoracic veins.

myelencephalon
Lower part of the brain stem, controlling numerous vital functions (breathing, blood pressure, heart rate) and assisting in maintaining homeostasis.

mylohyoid muscle
Muscle connecting the mandible and hyoid bone; it especially allows the lower jaw to be lowered and the tongue to be lifted.

myocardium
Muscle comprising the largest part of the heart, controlling cardiac contractions.

myometrium
Muscular wall of the uterus, contracting involuntarily during childbirth to expel the baby.