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ALPHABETICAL INDEX
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

s
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
LINKS TO THE VIRTUAL HUMAN BODY
sacral ganglia
Sympathetic ganglia located on the anterior side of the sacrum.

sacral lymph nodes
Nodes filtering lymph from the upper part of the rectum and posterior wall of the pelvis.

sacral nerves and coccygeal nerve
Group formed by all four pairs of spinal nerves arising from the sacrum and innervating the pelvis and lower limbs, and by the pair of spinal nerves arising from the coccyx.

sacrum
Triangular bone resulting from the fusion of five sacral vertebrae.

saphenous branch of descending genicular artery
Branch of the descending artery of the knee, irrigating the upper part of the leg.

saphenous nerve
Branch of the femoral nerve, innervating the inner side of the leg and knee.

sartorius muscle
Muscle connecting the iliac bone to the tibia and allowing flexion and rotation of the leg.

scaphoid bone
The largest bone of the upper row of the carpus, articulating with the radius at the wrist.

scapula
Triangular-shaped paired bone, slender and flat, located behind the thoracic cage, articulating with the clavicle and humerus; it protects the thorax and serves as the insertion point for several muscles of the back.

sciatic nerve
The largest nerve in the body, arising from the sacral plexus, innervating a large portion of the lower limb.

scrotum
Thick envelope of skin, supporting and protecting the testes.

second lumbar vertebra
Vertebra located between the first and third lombar vertebrae.

second metacarpal
Bone of the metacarpus, articulating with the trapezoid bone and the proximal phalange of the index finger.

second metatarsal
Bone of the metatarsus, articulating with the intermediate cuneiform bone and proximal phalanx of the second toe.

second rib
Second true rib.

second sacral vertebra
Vertebra fused to the sacrum, located between the first and third sacral vertebrae.

second thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the first and third thoracic vertebrae.

semimembranous muscle
Muscle connecting the ischial tuberosity to the tibia; it allows flexion and inward rotation of the leg, and extension of the thigh.

seminal vesicle
Each of two membranous sacs located above the prostate, storing sperm between ejaculations.

semispinalis muscle
Muscle composed of three segments (semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis and semispinalis dorsi) connecting the vertebrae to the occipital bone.

semitendinous muscle
Muscle connecting the ischial tuberosity to the tibia; it allows flexion and inward rotation of the leg, and extension of the thigh.

septomarginal trabecula
Trabecula of the right ventricle connecting the anterior papillary muscle to the interventricular septum.

septum pellucidum
Thin membrane separating the lateral ventricles of the brain.

serous coat
Membrane comprised of two layers, covering various organs or lining certain cavities.

serratus anterior muscle
Muscle connecting the first 10 ribs to the medial border of the scapula; it especially allows lateral rotation of the scapula, thereby assisting in the abduction of the arm.

sesamoid bones of hand
Rounded bones of varying number, located in the palmar surface of certain joints of the hand.

seventh rib
Last true rib, which is also the largest.

seventh thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the sixth and eighth thoracic vertebrae.

short abductor muscle of thumb
Superficial muscle connecting the trapezium bone to the proximal phalanx of the thumb; it mainly allows the thumb to move away from the axis of the hand (abduction).

short adductor muscle
Muscle connecting the pubis to the femur, allowing the thigh to move toward the axis of the body (adduction).

short extensor muscle of great toe
Muscular bundle connecting the calcaneus to the proximal phalanx of the big toe, allowing it to extend.

short extensor muscle of thumb
Muscle connecting the radius to the proximal phalanx of the thumb; it allows the thumb to extend and to move away from the axis of the hand (abduction).

short extensor muscle of toes
Muscle connecting the calcaneus to the first four toes, allowing them to extend.

short fibular muscle
Muscle connecting the fibula to the fifth metatarsal; it acts as the foot’s dorsal flexor and outward rotator.

short flexor muscle of little finger
Muscle connecting the hamate bone to the proximal phalanx of the little finger, allowing it to flex.

short flexor muscle of thumb
Muscle connecting the trapezium bone and retinaculum of the flexor muscles to the proximal phalanx of the thumb, allowing it to flex.

short head of biceps of arm
Part of the brachial biceps inserting into the roof of the coracoid process of the scapula.

short head of biceps of thigh
Part of the femoral biceps inserting on the linea aspera of the femur.

short palmar muscle
Muscle connecting the palmar aponeurosis to the skin of the medial border of the hand; it allows the skin of the hypothenar to fold.

short radial extensor muscle of wrist
Muscle connecting the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the third metacarpal; it allows the hand to fold backward (extension).

shoulder girdle
Joint connecting the arm to the thorax.

sigmoid colon
Terminal segment of the colon, carrying waste matter toward the rectum.

sigmoid sinus
Extension of the transverse sinus, leading to the internal jugular vein.

sixth cervical vertebra
Vertebra located between the fifth vertebra and the vertebra prominens (seventh cervical vertebra).

sixth rib
Sixth true rib.

sixth thoracic vertebra
Vertebra located between the fifth and seventh thoracic vertebrae.

skin
Flexible resistant organ covering the entire body, consisting of three main layers: the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis.

small cardiac vein
Vein draining blood from the right side of the heart.

small intestine
Channel of the digestive tract joining the stomach to the large intestine, divided into three parts (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), where the largest part of digestion and food absorption takes place.

small saphenous vein
Vein arising in the lateral part of the foot and joining the popliteal vein at the knee.

smaller psoas muscle
Variable muscle connecting the last thoracic vertebra and first lombar vertebra to the iliac bone; it assists in the flexion of the trunk.

soft palate
Muscular membranous wall separating the nasopharynx and buccal cavity; it especially assists in ingestion of food and vocalization.

soleus muscle
Deep thick muscle of the triceps surae connecting the tibia and fibula to the calcaneus; it allows extension of the foot, making it an important muscle for walking and running.

sphenoid bone
Unpaired bone located behind the orbits and taking up the entire width of the skull.

spinal cord
Part of the central nervous system located in the vertebral canal, inside the vertebral column; it transmits nerve information from the spinal nerves to the brain and back, and triggers reflexes.

spinal nerves
All of the 31 pairs of mixed nerves (sensory and motor) emerging from the spinal cord and innervating all parts of the body, except the face.

spleen
Lymphoid organ located between the stomach and pancreas; site of the production of white blood cells and antibodies, it is also a place where blood is stored and filtered.

splenic artery
Branch of the celiac trunk, irrigating the spleen and partly the stomach.

splenius muscle of head
Muscle connecting certain cervical and thoracic vertebrae to the mastoid process of the temporal bone; it especially allows extension of the neck and rotation of the head.

sternocleidomastoid muscle
Powerful muscle formed of two heads, connecting the mastoid process of the temporal bone to the manubrium and clavicle; it allows flexion, lateral inclination and rotation of the head.

sternohyoid muscle
Long, slender muscle connecting the manubrium to the hyoid bone, allowing it to be lowered after swallowing.

sternothyroid muscle
Muscle connecting the manubrium to the thyroid cartilage, allowing the larynx to be lowered.

sternum
Flat bone, vertically extended, forming the anterior midsection of the thoracic cage and articulating with the costal cartilages.

stomach
Organ of the digestive tract forming an extensible sac between the esophagus and small intestine; it transforms food from the esophagus into chyme, a thick fluid.

straight muscle of thigh
Central part of the quadriceps, connecting the anterior inferior iliac spine and acetabulum to the patella and tibia; it allows extension of the knee and flexion of the thigh.

straight sinus
Vessel formed by the union of the great cerebral vein and the lower sagittal sinus; it ends at the confluence of the sinuses.

stylohyoid muscle
Muscle connecting the styloid process of the temporal bone to the hyoid bone, allowing it to be lifted.

styloid process of radius
Bony protrusion forming the lower extremity of the radius and serving to attach the external ligament of the wrist.

styloid process of temporal bone
Bony protrusion of the temporal bone, long and slender, serving to attach ligaments and muscles of the pharynx.

styloid process of ulna
Bony protrusion of the lower extremity of the ulna, serving to attach an internal ligament of the wrist.

subacromial bursa
Serous sac located between the humerus and deltoid muscle.

subclavian artery
Main artery of the upper limb, passing beneath the clavicle and extending via the axillary artery; it also irrigates the lower part of the neck.

subclavian vein
Extension of the axillary vein, collecting blood from the arm and part of the neck; it joins the internal jugular vein to form the branchiocephalic vein.

subcostal artery
Collateral branch of the thoracic aorta, irrigating the area located beneath the twelfth rib.

subcostal muscles
Muscles of the thoracic cage, connecting the ribs to each other; they assist the movements of the thoracic cage during breathing.

subcostal nerve
Branch of the twelfth intercostal nerve, especially innervating part of the abdominal muscles.

subcostal vein
Vein draining blood from the region located beneath the twelfth rib; it joins the ascending lombar vein to form the azygos vein on the right side and the hemiazygos vein on the left side.

subcutaneous bursa of lateral malleolus
Variable serous sac located between the lateral malleolus and skin.

subcutaneous fat
Layer of adipose tissue located beneath the dermis of the skin, ensuring the body’s thermal insulation and storing energy; its distribution differs depending on the sex.

subcutaneous infrapatellar bursa
Serous sac located between the rotulian ligament and skin.

subcutaneous prepatellar bursa
Serous sac located in front of the patella.

subcutaneous trochanteric bursa
Serous sac located between the greater trochanter of the femur and skin.

subdeltoid bursa
Serous sac located between the deltoid muscle and shoulder joint.

submandibular lymph nodes
Nodes grouped near the submandibular gland, filtering lymph from part of the face and tongue.

subscapular artery
Branch of the axillary artery, irrigating the regions of the shoulder and scapula.

subscapular muscle
Muscle connecting the anterior face of the scapula to the lesser tubercle; it allows the inward rotation of the arm.

subscapular nerves
Nerves arising from the brachial plexus, innervating the subscapular and teres major muscles.

superficial branch of radial nerve
Branch of the radial nerve, innervating the skin of part of the back of the hand, as well as the first four fingers.

superficial cervical artery
Branch of the traverse cervical artery, irrigating the trapezius, splenius and elevator muscles of the scapula.

superficial circumflex iliac artery
Branch of the femoral artery, irrigating the groin region and part of the abdomen.

superficial circumflex iliac vein
Vein returning blood from the inguinal region to the great saphenous vein.

superficial epigastric vein
Vein carrying blood from part of the abdominal region to the great saphenous vein.

superficial fibular nerve
Branch of the common fibular nerve, especially innervating the external part of the leg and back of the foot.

superficial flexor muscle of fingers
Muscle having two heads connecting the medial epicondyle of the humerus, the coronoid process of the ulna and the radius to the medial phalanges of the fingers; it mainly allows flexion of the last four fingers.

superficial lymphatic vessel
Lymphatic vessel located in the subcutaneous tissues.

superficial middle cerebral vein
Vein running along the lateral surface of the brain and ending in the carvernous sinus.

superficial palmar arch
Artery of the palm of the hand, formed by the union of the ulnar artery and a branch of the radial artery; it gives rise to the common palmar digital arteries.

superficial palmar branch of radial artery
Branch of the radial artery, irrigating the thenar eminence.

superficial palmar venous arch
Vessel receiving the veins of the palmar face of the hand and fingers; the blood collected then passes into the radial and ulnar veins.

superficial parotid lymph nodes
Nodes located on the superficial surface of the parotid gland.

superficial temporal artery
Branch of the external carotid artery, irrigating mainly the temporal region.

superficial temporal veins
Veins collecting the blood of the temporal zone and then joining with the maxillary vein to form the retromandibular vein.

superficial transverse metacarpal ligament
Ligament located at the base of the palmar aponeurosis.

superficial vein
Veins located in the subcutaneous tissues, emptying into a deep vein; they are not generally accompanied by an artery.

superficial veins of lower limb
Superficial veins draining blood from the lower limbs; they especially include the great and small saphenous veins.

superficial veins of upper limb
Superficial veins, draining blood from the upper limbs; they especially include the cephalic, basilic and median veins of the forearm.

superior angle of scapula
Internal angle formed by the juncture of the superior and medial borders of the scapula.

superior auricular muscle
Muscle connecting the epicranial aponeurosis to the cartilage of the ear; it pulls the ear slightly upward.

superior cerebellar artery
Branch of the basilar artery, irrigating the superior face of the cerebellum.

superior cerebellar peduncle
Cerebellar peduncle connecting the cerebellum to the cerebral peduncle.

superior cerebral veins
Veins collecting blood from the superior, lateral and medial surfaces of the brain, and emptying into the superior sagittal sinus.

superior cervical ganglion
Sympathetic nodes located beneath the base of the skull, between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein.

superior colliculus
Each of two elevations located on the dorsal side of the midbrain, above; they are part of the visual pathways.

superior costal facet
Smooth surface located in the upper part of the vertebral body and articulating with the head of a rib.

superior epigastric artery
Terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery, irrigating mainly the abdominal muscles.

superior epigastric veins
Veins carrying blood from the abdominal muscles to the internal thoracic veins.

superior extensor retinaculum
Ligament located above the ankle, anchoring the muscle tendons during dorsal movements of the foot.

superior fibular retinaculum
Ligament extending from the lateral malleolus to the calcaneus, anchoring the long and short fibular muscles to the outer side of the foot.

superior gluteal artery
Branch of the internal iliac artery, irrigating the buttock.

superior gluteal nerve
Nerve arising from the sacral plexus, innervating the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles.

superior gluteal veins
Veins draining blood from the muscles of the buttocks and emptying it into the internal iliac vein.

superior labial artery
Branch of the facial artery, irrigating the upper lip and nose.

superior labial vein
Vein carrying blood from the region of the upper lip to the facial vein.

superior lobe
Upper part of the lung separated from the inferior lobe by an oblique fissure and, in the right lung, from the middle lobe by a horizontal fissure.

superior mesenteric artery
Anterior branch of the abdominal aorta, irrigating a large portion of the intestine (small intestine, right colon).

superior nasal concha
Paired bone, fine and curved, located in the upper part of the nasal cavity and contributing to smell when inhaled air comes into contact with its mucous membrane.

superior sagittal sinus
Vein having a fibrous bony wall, running along the top of the skull from front to back on the median line, up to the confluence of the sinuses; it receives the upper cerebral veins.

superior thyroid artery
Branch of the external carotid artery, irrigating the thyroid gland, above.

superior thyroid vein
Vein receiving blood from the superior part of the thyroid gland and emptying into the internal jugular vein.

superior trunk of brachial plexus
Part of the brachial plexus formed by the fifth and sixth cervical nerves.

superior ulnar collateral artery
Branch of the brachial artery, irrigating the triceps muscle and the elbow region.

superior vena cava
Vein draining blood from the regions of the body located above the diaphragm toward the right atrium.

superolateral superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Nodes located laterally to the great saphenous vein, filtering lymph from the superficial regions of the buttocks and abdomen.

superomedial superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Nodes located medially to the saphenous vein, filtering lymph from the perineum and external genitalia.

supinator muscle
Muscle connecting the humerus, ulna and elbow to the radius; it allows outward rotation of the forearm (supination).

supraclavicular nerves
Nerves arising from the cervical plexus, innervating the shoulder and upper part of the thorax.

supraorbital artery
Branch of the ophthalmic artery, irrigating the frontal muscle and scalp, in front.

supraorbital nerve
Branch of the frontal nerve, especially innervating the forehead and upper eyelid.

supraorbital notch/foramen
Depression or aperture of the frontal bone, allowing the passage of various nerves and blood vessels.

suprarenal gland
Endocrine gland located above the kidney; some of the hormones it secretes are involved in the stress response, while others act on water retention.

suprascapular artery
Branch of the thyrocervical trunk, irrigating the regions surrounding the clavicle and scapula.

suprascapular nerve
Nerve arising from the brachial plexus, especially innervating the supraspinous and infraspinous muscles.

suprascapular notch
Notch in the upper border of the scapula, allowing the passage of the suprascapular nerve.

suprascapular vein
Vein carrying blood from the region of the scapula to the axillary vein.

supraspinous muscle
Muscle connecting the posterior side of the scapula to the greater tubercle; it assists in abduction of the arm.

supreme intercostal artery
Branch of the costocervical trunk, irrigating the upper part of the thoracic cage.

supreme intercostal vein
Vein carrying blood from the region of the first intercostal space to the vertebral or brachiocephalic vein.

suspensory ligaments of breast
Ligaments connecting the mammary tissues to the skin, mainly supporting the breast.

sympathetic trunk
All the interconnected autonomic ganglia, forming a vertical chain on each side of the vertebral column.

synovial sheaths of fingers
Membranes surrounding the tendons of the fingers.

synovial sheaths of toes
Synovial membranes covering the flexor tendons of the toes.