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open-pit mine click to hear : open-pit mine

Type of mining that is used for shallow deposits; coal or ore is extracted by digging a succession of benches from the surface of the ground downward.
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crater haulage road ore bench height ramp overburden ground surface face bench

crater click to hear : crater

Depression that forms the bottom of the quarry; it is a result of the extraction of deposits.

haulage road click to hear : haulage road

Access road leading to the quarry; it is used to haul coal to the treatment plant.

ore click to hear : ore

Solid fossil fuel that is black and contains a large amount of carbon.

bench height click to hear : bench height

Vertical distance between the horizontal planes of two benches.

ramp click to hear : ramp

Roadway between two benches; it is inclined so that motorized vehicles can remove the ore extracted from the various levels.

overburden click to hear : overburden

Part of the ground that covers the ore beds; it is removed to reach the deposit.

ground surface click to hear : ground surface

The land that covers the deposit.

face click to hear : face

Vertical surface created by dynamiting a deposit to extract its ore.

bench click to hear : bench

The levels of a quarry that are arranged like steps of a staircase and from which coal or ore is extracted.