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soil profile click to hear : soil profile

Soil usually has four main layers; it varies in total thickness from several centimeters to several meters, depending on the area.
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See soil profile in : french | spanish
bedrock subsoil plant litter topsoil

bedrock click to hear : bedrock

Rock that forms the bottom layer of soil; its physical and chemical breakdown enables the upper layers to develop.

subsoil click to hear : subsoil

Third layer of soil to which the roots extend; contains little organic matter but many nutrients leached from the topsoil.

plant litter click to hear : plant litter

Upper layer of soil, composed of recently fallen animal and vegetable scraps or those in the early stages of decomposition.

topsoil click to hear : topsoil

Second layer of soil, dark in color and rich in organic matter; it contains almost all of the soil’s animal and vegetable life.