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Type of mining that is used especially for large shallow deposits; coal or ore is extracted by digging a trench in the ground surface.
Geologic stratum that covers the ore seam; it is of more recent formation than the ore.
Lengthwise excavation that is made down to the top of the ore layer in order to extract its coal.
Excavation machine for pushing materials; it is made up of a crawler tractor, a blade and often a ripper.
Part of the quarry that is being excavated and from which ore is progressively extracted.
Part of the ground that covers the ore beds; it is removed to reach the deposit.
Pile that is made up of residue from mining operations.
Materials-handling device that consists of a conveyor belt (sturdy belt on rollers) that is used to transport coal extracted from the mine.
Movable materials-handling device that is fitted with an inclined conveyor belt; it is used mainly to raise loads.
Earthmover that consists of a movable cab with an articulated arm fitted with a bucket (scoop); it is used for digging and handling loads.
bucket wheel excavator
Earthmover that consists of a wheel fitted with buckets (scoops); it is used to dig into rock to extract materials, which are then dumped onto a conveyor.